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Nanomaterials 2016, 6(9), 163; doi:10.3390/nano6090163

Multispectral Emissions of Lanthanide-Doped Gadolinium Oxide Nanophosphors for Cathodoluminescence and Near-Infrared Upconversion/Downconversion Imaging

1
Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan
2
Institute for NanoScience Design, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan
3
Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503, Japan
4
Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
5
ImPACT Research Center for Advanced Nanobiodevices, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
6
Health Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2217-14, Hayashi-cho, Takamatsu 761-0395, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas Nann
Received: 3 June 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 18 August 2016 / Published: 6 September 2016
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Abstract

Comprehensive imaging of a biological individual can be achieved by utilizing the variation in spatial resolution, the scale of cathodoluminescence (CL), and near-infrared (NIR), as favored by imaging probe Gd2O3 co-doped lanthanide nanophosphors (NPPs). A series of Gd2O3:Ln3+/Yb3+ (Ln3+: Tm3+, Ho3+, Er3+) NPPs with multispectral emission are prepared by the sol-gel method. The NPPs show a wide range of emissions spanning from the visible to the NIR region under 980 nm excitation. The dependence of the upconverting (UC)/downconverting (DC) emission intensity on the dopant ratio is investigated. The optimum ratios of dopants obtained for emissions in the NIR regions at 810 nm, 1200 nm, and 1530 nm are applied to produce nanoparticles by the homogeneous precipitation (HP) method. The nanoparticles produced from the HP method are used to investigate the dual NIR and CL imaging modalities. The results indicate the possibility of using Gd2O3 co-doped Ln3+/Yb3+ (Ln3+: Tm3+, Ho3+, Er3+) in correlation with NIR and CL imaging. The use of Gd2O3 promises an extension of the object dimension to the whole-body level by employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). View Full-Text
Keywords: bio-imaging; multimodal imaging; cathodoluminescence; near-infrared imaging; nanophosphors bio-imaging; multimodal imaging; cathodoluminescence; near-infrared imaging; nanophosphors
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Thi Kim Dung, D.; Fukushima, S.; Furukawa, T.; Niioka, H.; Sannomiya, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Yukawa, H.; Baba, Y.; Hashimoto, M.; Miyake, J. Multispectral Emissions of Lanthanide-Doped Gadolinium Oxide Nanophosphors for Cathodoluminescence and Near-Infrared Upconversion/Downconversion Imaging. Nanomaterials 2016, 6, 163.

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