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Nanomaterials 2016, 6(8), 149; doi:10.3390/nano6080149

Receptor-Meditated Endocytosis by Hyaluronic Acid@Superparamagnetic Nanovetor for Targeting of CD44-Overexpressing Tumor Cells

1
Department of Anatomy, Konyang University, Daejeon 302-718, Korea
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
3
Physical Therapy, Konyang University, Daejeon 302-718, Korea
4
Biomedical Engineering, Konyang University, Daejeon 302-718, Korea
5
Radiological Science, Konyang University, Daejeon 302-718, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yurii Gun’ko
Received: 16 July 2016 / Revised: 1 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6229 KB, uploaded 18 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

The present report proposes a more rational hyaluronic acid (HA) conjugation protocol that can be used to modify the surface of the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) by covalently binding the targeting molecules (HA) with glutamic acid as a molecular linker on peripheral surface of SPIONs. The synthesis of HA-Glutamic Acid (GA)@SPIONs was included oxidization of nanoparticle’s surface with H2O2 followed by activation of hydroxyl group and reacting glutamic acid as an intermediate molecule demonstrating transfection of lung cancer cells. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and zeta-potential studies confirmed the chemical bonding between amino acid linker and polysaccharides. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay showed that HA-SPIONs-treated cells remained 82.9% ± 2.7% alive at high particle dosage (200 µg/mL iron concentration), whereas GA-SPIONs and bare SPIONs (B-SPIONs) treated cells had only 59.3% ± 13.4% and 26.5% ± 3.1% survival rate at the same conditions, respectively. Confocal microscopy analysis showed increased cellular internalization of HA-SPIONs compared to non-interacting agarose coated SPIONs (AgA-SPIONs). View Full-Text
Keywords: superparamagnetic; CD44; hyaluronan; glutamic acid; receptor-meditated endocytosis (RME) superparamagnetic; CD44; hyaluronan; glutamic acid; receptor-meditated endocytosis (RME)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, K.S.; Lin, M.M.; Lee, H.-J.; Tae, K.-S.; Kang, B.-S.; Lee, J.H.; Lee, N.S.; Jeong, Y.G.; Han, S.-Y.; Kim, D.K. Receptor-Meditated Endocytosis by Hyaluronic Acid@Superparamagnetic Nanovetor for Targeting of CD44-Overexpressing Tumor Cells. Nanomaterials 2016, 6, 149.

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