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Nanomaterials 2016, 6(2), 31; doi:10.3390/nano6020031

Effect of NaCl on the Lifetime of Micro- and Nanobubbles

1
Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13 W8 Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628, Japan
2
Graduate School of Agricultural & Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Richard Tilley
Received: 25 December 2015 / Revised: 21 January 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 5 February 2016
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Abstract

Micro- and nanobubbles (MNBs) are potentially useful for industrial applications such as the purification of wastewater and the promotion of physiological activities of living organisms. To develop such applications, we should understand their properties and behavior, such as their lifetime and their number density in solution. In the present study, we observed oxygen MNBs distributed in an electrolyte (NaCl) solution using a transmission electron microscope to analyze samples made with the freeze-fracture replica method. We found that MNBs in a 100 mM NaCl solution remain for at least 1 week, but at higher concentrations decay more quickly. To better understand their lifetimes, we compared measurements of the solution's dissolved oxygen concentration and the ζ-potential of the MNBs. Our detailed observations of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images allows us to conclude that low concentrations of NaCl stabilize MNBs due to the ion shielding effect. However, higher concentrations accelerate their disappearance by reducing the repulsive force between MNBs. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbubble; nanobubble; freeze-fracture replica; transmission electron microscope; ζ-potential; ionic shielding; diffusive shielding microbubble; nanobubble; freeze-fracture replica; transmission electron microscope; ζ-potential; ionic shielding; diffusive shielding
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Uchida, T.; Liu, S.; Enari, M.; Oshita, S.; Yamazaki, K.; Gohara, K. Effect of NaCl on the Lifetime of Micro- and Nanobubbles. Nanomaterials 2016, 6, 31.

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