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Nanomaterials 2016, 6(12), 231; doi:10.3390/nano6120231

Temperature- and Angle-Dependent Magnetic Properties of Ni Nanotube Arrays Fabricated by Electrodeposition in Polycarbonate Templates

1
Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
2
School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
3
Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division, PINSTECH, Nilore, Islamabad 45650, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas Nann
Received: 19 October 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3300 KB, uploaded 1 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Parallel arrays of Ni nanotubes with an external diameter of 150 nm, a wall thickness of 15 nm, and a length of 1.2 ± 0.3 µm were successfully fabricated in ion-track etched polycarbonate (PC) templates by electrochemical deposition. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Structural analyses indicate that Ni nanotubes have a polycrystalline structure with no preferred orientation. Angle dependent hysteresis studies at room temperature carried out by using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) demonstrate a transition of magnetization between the two different magnetization reversal modes: curling rotation for small angles and coherent rotation for large angles. Furthermore, temperature dependent magnetic analyses performed with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer indicate that magnetization of the nanotubes follows modified Bloch’s law in the range 60–300 K, while the deviation of the experimental curve from this law below 60 K can be attributed to the finite size effects in the nanotubes. Finally, it was found that coercivity measured at different temperatures follows Kneller’s law within the premises of Stoner–Wohlfarth model for ferromagnetic nanostructures. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ni nanotubes; electrodeposition; polycarbonate template; magnetization reversal; angular dependent hysteresis Ni nanotubes; electrodeposition; polycarbonate template; magnetization reversal; angular dependent hysteresis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, Y.; Xu, C.; Zhou, Y.; Maaz, K.; Yao, H.; Mo, D.; Lyu, S.; Duan, J.; Liu, J. Temperature- and Angle-Dependent Magnetic Properties of Ni Nanotube Arrays Fabricated by Electrodeposition in Polycarbonate Templates. Nanomaterials 2016, 6, 231.

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