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Nanomaterials 2016, 6(12), 222; doi:10.3390/nano6120222

Shape and Charge of Gold Nanomaterials Influence Survivorship, Oxidative Stress and Moulting of Daphnia magna

School of Geography Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
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Academic Editor: Thomas Nann
Received: 21 July 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
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Abstract

Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are materials with at least one dimension between 1–100 nm. The small size of ENMs results in a large surface area to volume ratio, giving ENMs novel characteristics that are not traditionally exhibited by larger bulk materials. Coupled with large surface area is an enormous capacity for surface functionalization of ENMs, e.g., with different ligands or surface changes, leading to an almost infinite array of variability of ENMs. Here we explore the effects of various shaped (spheres, rods) and charged (negative, positive) gold ENMs on Daphnia magna (D. magna) in terms of survival, ENM uptake and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a key factor in oxidative stress responses. We also investigate the effects of gold ENMs binding to the carapace of D. magna and how this may induce moulting inhibition in addition to toxicity and stress. The findings suggest that ENM shape and surface charge play an important role in determining ENM uptake and toxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: nano-safety; Daphnia magna; surface charge; ecotoxicology; oxidative stress nano-safety; Daphnia magna; surface charge; ecotoxicology; oxidative stress
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nasser, F.; Davis, A.; Valsami-Jones, E.; Lynch, I. Shape and Charge of Gold Nanomaterials Influence Survivorship, Oxidative Stress and Moulting of Daphnia magna. Nanomaterials 2016, 6, 222.

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