Separation of Bacteria, Protozoa and Carbon Nanotubes by Density Gradient Centrifugation
AbstractSustainable production and use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-enabled materials require efficient assessment of CNT environmental hazards, including the potential for CNT bioaccumulation and biomagnification in environmental receptors. Microbes, as abundant organisms responsible for nutrient cycling in soil and water, are important ecological receptors for studying the effects of CNTs. Quantification of CNT association with microbial cells requires efficient separation of CNT-associated cells from individually dispersed CNTs and CNT agglomerates. Here, we designed, optimized, and demonstrated procedures for separating bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) from unbound multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and MWCNT agglomerates using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. We demonstrate separation of protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila) from MWCNTs, bacterial agglomerates, and protozoan fecal pellets by centrifugation in an iodixanol solution. The presence of MWCNTs in the density gradients after centrifugation was determined by quantification of 14C-labeled MWCNTs; the recovery of microbes from the density gradient media was confirmed by optical microscopy. Protozoan intracellular contents of MWCNTs and of bacteria were also unaffected by the designed separation process. The optimized methods contribute to improved efficiency and accuracy in quantifying MWCNT association with bacteria and MWCNT accumulation in protozoan cells, thus supporting improved assessment of CNT bioaccumulation. View Full-Text
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Mortimer, M.; Petersen, E.J.; Buchholz, B.A.; Holden, P.A. Separation of Bacteria, Protozoa and Carbon Nanotubes by Density Gradient Centrifugation. Nanomaterials 2016, 6, 181.
Mortimer M, Petersen EJ, Buchholz BA, Holden PA. Separation of Bacteria, Protozoa and Carbon Nanotubes by Density Gradient Centrifugation. Nanomaterials. 2016; 6(10):181.Chicago/Turabian Style
Mortimer, Monika; Petersen, Elijah J.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Holden, Patricia A. 2016. "Separation of Bacteria, Protozoa and Carbon Nanotubes by Density Gradient Centrifugation." Nanomaterials 6, no. 10: 181.