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Nanomaterials 2014, 4(1), 55-68; doi:10.3390/nano4010055
Article

Enhanced Upconversion Luminescence in Yb3+/Tm3+-Codoped Fluoride Active Core/Active Shell/Inert Shell Nanoparticles through Directed Energy Migration

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1 School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China 2 Institute for Lasers, Photonics, and Biophotonics, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA 3 Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA 4 Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2013 / Revised: 30 December 2013 / Accepted: 30 December 2013 / Published: 3 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Up-Converting Nanoparticles)
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Abstract

The luminescence efficiency of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles is of particular importance for their embodiment in biophotonic and photonic applications. Here, we show that the upconversion luminescence of typically used NaYF4:Yb3+30%/Tm3+0.5% nanoparticles can be enhanced by ~240 times through a hierarchical active core/active shell/inert shell (NaYF4:Yb3+30%/Tm3+0.5%)/NaYbF4/NaYF4 design, which involves the use of directed energy migration in the second active shell layer. The resulting active core/active shell/inert shell nanoparticles are determined to be about 11 times brighter than that of well-investigated (NaYF4:Yb3+30%/Tm3+0.5%)/NaYF4 active core/inert shell nanoparticles when excited at ~980 nm. The strategy for enhanced upconversion in Yb3+/Tm3+-codoped NaYF4 nanoparticles through directed energy migration might have implications for other types of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles.
Keywords: upconversion; efficiency; core/shell; energy migration upconversion; efficiency; core/shell; energy migration
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Qiu, H.; Yang, C.; Shao, W.; Damasco, J.; Wang, X.; Ågren, H.; Prasad, P.N.; Chen, G. Enhanced Upconversion Luminescence in Yb3+/Tm3+-Codoped Fluoride Active Core/Active Shell/Inert Shell Nanoparticles through Directed Energy Migration. Nanomaterials 2014, 4, 55-68.

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