Nanomaterials 2014, 4(1), 55-68; doi:10.3390/nano4010055
Article

Enhanced Upconversion Luminescence in Yb3+/Tm3+-Codoped Fluoride Active Core/Active Shell/Inert Shell Nanoparticles through Directed Energy Migration

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Received: 11 December 2013; in revised form: 30 December 2013 / Accepted: 30 December 2013 / Published: 3 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Up-Converting Nanoparticles)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The luminescence efficiency of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles is of particular importance for their embodiment in biophotonic and photonic applications. Here, we show that the upconversion luminescence of typically used NaYF4:Yb3+30%/Tm3+0.5% nanoparticles can be enhanced by ~240 times through a hierarchical active core/active shell/inert shell (NaYF4:Yb3+30%/Tm3+0.5%)/NaYbF4/NaYF4 design, which involves the use of directed energy migration in the second active shell layer. The resulting active core/active shell/inert shell nanoparticles are determined to be about 11 times brighter than that of well-investigated (NaYF4:Yb3+30%/Tm3+0.5%)/NaYF4 active core/inert shell nanoparticles when excited at ~980 nm. The strategy for enhanced upconversion in Yb3+/Tm3+-codoped NaYF4 nanoparticles through directed energy migration might have implications for other types of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles.
Keywords: upconversion; efficiency; core/shell; energy migration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Qiu, H.; Yang, C.; Shao, W.; Damasco, J.; Wang, X.; Ågren, H.; Prasad, P.N.; Chen, G. Enhanced Upconversion Luminescence in Yb3+/Tm3+-Codoped Fluoride Active Core/Active Shell/Inert Shell Nanoparticles through Directed Energy Migration. Nanomaterials 2014, 4, 55-68.

AMA Style

Qiu H, Yang C, Shao W, Damasco J, Wang X, Ågren H, Prasad PN, Chen G. Enhanced Upconversion Luminescence in Yb3+/Tm3+-Codoped Fluoride Active Core/Active Shell/Inert Shell Nanoparticles through Directed Energy Migration. Nanomaterials. 2014; 4(1):55-68.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Qiu, Hailong; Yang, Chunhui; Shao, Wei; Damasco, Jossana; Wang, Xianliang; Ågren, Hans; Prasad, Paras N.; Chen, Guanying. 2014. "Enhanced Upconversion Luminescence in Yb3+/Tm3+-Codoped Fluoride Active Core/Active Shell/Inert Shell Nanoparticles through Directed Energy Migration." Nanomaterials 4, no. 1: 55-68.

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