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J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(2), 8; doi:10.3390/jfb7020008

Glass Polyalkenoate Cements Designed for Cranioplasty Applications: An Evaluation of Their Physical and Mechanical Properties

1
Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada
2
Division of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery & Anaesthesia, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5G 1G6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: James Kit-hon Tsoi
Received: 17 February 2016 / Revised: 18 March 2016 / Accepted: 18 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Biocements for Medical/Dental Purposes)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5677 KB, uploaded 25 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) have potential for skeletal cementation. Unfortunately, commercial GPCs all contain, and subsequently release, aluminum ions, which have been implicated in degenerative brain disease. The purpose of this research was to create a series of aluminum-free GPCs constructed from silicate (SiO2), calcium (CaO), zinc (ZnO) and sodium (Na2O)-containing glasses mixed with poly-acrylic acid (PAA) and to evaluate the potential of these cements for cranioplasty applications. Three glasses were formulated based on the SiO2-CaO-ZnO-Na2O parent glass (KBT01) with 0.03 mol % (KBT02) and 0.06 mol % (KBT03) germanium (GeO2) substituted for ZnO. Each glass was then mixed with 50 wt % of a patented SiO2-CaO-ZnO-strontium (SrO) glass composition and the resultant mixtures were subsequently reacted with aqueous PAA (50 wt % addition) to produce three GPCs. The incorporation of Ge in the glass phase was found to result in decreased working (142 s to 112 s) and setting (807 s to 448 s) times for the cements manufactured from them, likely due to the increase in crosslink formation between the Ge-containing glasses and the PAA. Compressive (σc) and biaxial flexural (σf) strengths of the cements were examined at 1, 7 and 30 days post mixing and were found to increase with both maturation and Ge content. The bonding strength of a titanium cylinder (Ti) attached to bone by the cements increased from 0.2 MPa, when placed, to 0.6 MPa, after 14 days maturation. The results of this research indicate that Germano-Silicate based GPCs have suitable handling and mechanical properties for cranioplasty fixation. View Full-Text
Keywords: cranioplasty fixation; germanium; glass polyalkenoate cemets; titanium miniplate; compressive strength; biaxial flexural strength; tensile strength; ovis aries bone cranioplasty fixation; germanium; glass polyalkenoate cemets; titanium miniplate; compressive strength; biaxial flexural strength; tensile strength; ovis aries bone
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Khader, B.A.; Curran, D.J.; Peel, S.; Towler, M.R. Glass Polyalkenoate Cements Designed for Cranioplasty Applications: An Evaluation of Their Physical and Mechanical Properties. J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7, 8.

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