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J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(1), 7; doi:10.3390/jfb7010007

Mineralization at Titanium Surfaces is a Two-Step Process

1,* , 2,†
and
3,†
1
Department of Medical Chemistry and Cell Biology, University of Gothenburg, P.O.B. 420, Göteborg 43050, Sweden
2
Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg 41296, Sweden
3
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg 41296, Sweden
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Qingling Feng and Francesco Puoci
Received: 17 December 2015 / Revised: 8 February 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2016 / Published: 15 March 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1929 KB, uploaded 15 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Mapping the initial reaction of implants with blood or cell culture medium is important for the understanding of the healing process in bone. In the present study, the formation of low crystalline carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) onto commercially pure titanium (Ti) implants from cell culture medium and blood, is described as an early event in bone healing at implants. The Ti-implants were incubated with cell culture medium (DMEM) or whole blood and the surface concentration of Ca, P and HA was analyzed by XPS, EDX and Tof-SIMS. After incubation with DMEM for 16 h and 72 h, EDX and XPS analysis showed stable levels of Ca and P on the Ti-surface. ESEM images showed an even distribution of Ca and P. Further analysis of the XPS results indicated that CHA was formed at the implants. Analysis with ToF-SIMS yielded high m.w. fragments of HA, such as Ca2PO4 at m/z 174.9 and Ca3PO5 at m/z 230.8, as secondary ions at the Ti-surfaces. Analysis of implants incubated in blood for 16 h, with ToF-SIMS, showed initial formation of CHA yielding CaOH as secondary ion. The results indicate that early mineralization at Ti-surfaces is an important step in the healing of implants into bone. View Full-Text
Keywords: titanium; implant; hydroxyapatite titanium; implant; hydroxyapatite
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Nygren, H.; Ilver, L.; Malmberg, P. Mineralization at Titanium Surfaces is a Two-Step Process. J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7, 7.

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