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J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4(4), 329-357; doi:10.3390/jfb4040329
Article

A Novel Glass Polyalkenoate Cement for Fixation and Stabilisation of the Ribcage, Post Sternotomy Surgery: An ex-Vivo Study

1
,
2
,
1, 3
 and
1,2,*
1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia 2 Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto M5B 2K3, ON, Canada 3 Department of Applied Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax B3H 4R2, NS, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2013 / Revised: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
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Abstract

This study investigates the use of gallium (Ga) based glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) as a possible alternative adhesive in sternal fixation, post sternotomy surgery. The glass series consists of a Control (CaO–ZnO–SiO2), and LGa-1 and LGa-2 which contain Ga at the expense of zinc (Zn) in 0.08 mol% increments. The additions of Ga resulted in increased working time (75 s to 137 s) and setting time (113 to 254 s). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated that this was a direct result of increased unreacted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and the reduction of crosslink formation during cement maturation. LGa samples (0.16 wt % Ga) resulted in an altered ion release profile, particularly for 30 days analysis, with maximum Ca2+, Zn2+, Si4+ and Ga3+ ions released into the distilled water. The additions of Ga resulted in increased roughness and decreased contact angles during cement maturation. The presence of Ga has a positive effect on the compressive strength of the samples with strengths increasing over 10 MPa at 7 days analysis compared to the 1 day results. The additions of Ga had relatively no effect on the flexural strength. Tensile testing of bovine sterna proved that the LGa samples (0.16 wt % Ga) are comparable to the Control samples.
Keywords: sternal fixation; gallium; glass polyalkenoate cement; sternotomy; compressive strength; biaxial flexural strength; roughness; contact angle; bovine sterna sternal fixation; gallium; glass polyalkenoate cement; sternotomy; compressive strength; biaxial flexural strength; roughness; contact angle; bovine sterna
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Alhalawani, A.M.; Curran, D.J.; Pingguan-Murphy, B.; Boyd, D.; Towler, M.R. A Novel Glass Polyalkenoate Cement for Fixation and Stabilisation of the Ribcage, Post Sternotomy Surgery: An ex-Vivo Study. J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4, 329-357.

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