J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4(4), 329-357; doi:10.3390/jfb4040329
Article

A Novel Glass Polyalkenoate Cement for Fixation and Stabilisation of the Ribcage, Post Sternotomy Surgery: An ex-Vivo Study

Received: 1 August 2013; in revised form: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This study investigates the use of gallium (Ga) based glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) as a possible alternative adhesive in sternal fixation, post sternotomy surgery. The glass series consists of a Control (CaO–ZnO–SiO2), and LGa-1 and LGa-2 which contain Ga at the expense of zinc (Zn) in 0.08 mol% increments. The additions of Ga resulted in increased working time (75 s to 137 s) and setting time (113 to 254 s). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated that this was a direct result of increased unreacted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and the reduction of crosslink formation during cement maturation. LGa samples (0.16 wt % Ga) resulted in an altered ion release profile, particularly for 30 days analysis, with maximum Ca2+, Zn2+, Si4+ and Ga3+ ions released into the distilled water. The additions of Ga resulted in increased roughness and decreased contact angles during cement maturation. The presence of Ga has a positive effect on the compressive strength of the samples with strengths increasing over 10 MPa at 7 days analysis compared to the 1 day results. The additions of Ga had relatively no effect on the flexural strength. Tensile testing of bovine sterna proved that the LGa samples (0.16 wt % Ga) are comparable to the Control samples.
Keywords: sternal fixation; gallium; glass polyalkenoate cement; sternotomy; compressive strength; biaxial flexural strength; roughness; contact angle; bovine sterna
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alhalawani, A.M.; Curran, D.J.; Pingguan-Murphy, B.; Boyd, D.; Towler, M.R. A Novel Glass Polyalkenoate Cement for Fixation and Stabilisation of the Ribcage, Post Sternotomy Surgery: An ex-Vivo Study. J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4, 329-357.

AMA Style

Alhalawani AM, Curran DJ, Pingguan-Murphy B, Boyd D, Towler MR. A Novel Glass Polyalkenoate Cement for Fixation and Stabilisation of the Ribcage, Post Sternotomy Surgery: An ex-Vivo Study. Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 2013; 4(4):329-357.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alhalawani, Adel M.; Curran, Declan J.; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Boyd, Daniel; Towler, Mark R. 2013. "A Novel Glass Polyalkenoate Cement for Fixation and Stabilisation of the Ribcage, Post Sternotomy Surgery: An ex-Vivo Study." J. Funct. Biomater. 4, no. 4: 329-357.

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