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J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2013), Pages 89-177

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Preliminary Investigation of the Dissolution Behavior, Cytocompatibility, Effects of Fibrinogen Conformation and Platelet Adhesion for Radiopaque Embolic Particles
J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4(3), 89-113; doi:10.3390/jfb4030089
Received: 11 January 2013 / Revised: 6 May 2013 / Accepted: 8 June 2013 / Published: 10 July 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (983 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Experimental embolic particles based on a novel zinc-silicate glass system have been biologically evaluated for potential consideration in transcatheter arterial embolization procedures. In addition to controlling the cytotoxicity and haemocompatibility for such embolic particles, its glass structure may mediate specific responses via [...] Read more.
Experimental embolic particles based on a novel zinc-silicate glass system have been biologically evaluated for potential consideration in transcatheter arterial embolization procedures. In addition to controlling the cytotoxicity and haemocompatibility for such embolic particles, its glass structure may mediate specific responses via dissolution in the physiological environment. In a 120 h in-vitro dissolution study, ion release levels for silicon (Si4+), sodium (Na+), calcium (Ca2+), zinc (Zn2+), titanium (Ti4+), lanthanum (La3+), strontium (Sr2+), and magnesium (Mg2+), were found to range from 0.04 to 5.41 ppm, 0.27–2.28 ppm, 2.32–8.47 ppm, 0.16–0.20 ppm, 0.12–2.15 ppm, 0.16–0.49 ppm and 0.01–0.12 ppm, respectively for the series of glass compositions evaluated. Initial release of Zn2+ (1.93–10.40 ppm) was only evident after 120 h. All compositions showed levels of cell viabilities ranging from 61.31 ± 4.33% to 153.7 ± 1.25% at 25%–100% serial extract dilutions. The conformational state of fibrinogen, known to induce thrombi, indicated that no changes were induced with respect of the materials dissolution by-products. Furthermore, the best-in-class experimental composition showed equivalency to contour PVA in terms of inducing platelet adhesion. The data generated here provides requisite evidence to continue to in-vivo pre-clinical evaluation using the best-in-class experimental composition evaluated. Full article
Open AccessArticle Epoxy Cross-Linked Collagen and Collagen-Laminin Peptide Hydrogels as Corneal Substitutes
J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4(3), 162-177; doi:10.3390/jfb4030162
Received: 7 April 2013 / Revised: 3 July 2013 / Accepted: 6 August 2013 / Published: 28 August 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A bi-functional epoxy-based cross-linker, 1,4-Butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE), was investigated in the fabrication of collagen based corneal substitutes. Two synthetic strategies were explored in the preparation of the cross-linked collagen scaffolds. The lysine residues of Type 1 porcine collagen were directly cross-linked [...] Read more.
A bi-functional epoxy-based cross-linker, 1,4-Butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE), was investigated in the fabrication of collagen based corneal substitutes. Two synthetic strategies were explored in the preparation of the cross-linked collagen scaffolds. The lysine residues of Type 1 porcine collagen were directly cross-linked using l,4-Butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE) under basic conditions at pH 11. Alternatively, under conventional methodology, using both BDDGE and 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as cross-linkers, hydrogels were fabricated under acidic conditions. In this latter strategy, Cu(BF4)2·XH2O was used to catalyze the formation of secondary amine bonds. To date, we have demonstrated that both methods of chemical cross-linking improved the elasticity and tensile strength of the collagen implants. Differential scanning calorimetry and biocompatibility studies indicate comparable, and in some cases, enhanced properties compared to that of the EDC/NHS controls. In vitro studies showed that human corneal epithelial cells and neuronal progenitor cell lines proliferated on these hydrogels. In addition, improvement of cell proliferation on the surfaces of the materials was observed when neurite promoting laminin epitope, IKVAV, and adhesion peptide, YIGSR, were incorporated. However, the elasticity decreased with peptide incorporation and will require further optimization. Nevertheless, we have shown that epoxy cross-linkers should be further explored in the fabrication of collagen-based hydrogels, as alternatives to or in conjunction with carbodiimide cross-linkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ophthalmic Biomaterials)

Review

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Open AccessReview Keeping an Eye on Decellularized Corneas: A Review of Methods, Characterization and Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4(3), 114-161; doi:10.3390/jfb4030114
Received: 29 March 2013 / Revised: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 28 May 2013 / Published: 10 July 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The worldwide limited availability of suitable corneal donor tissue has led to the development of alternatives, including keratoprostheses (Kpros) and tissue engineered (TE) constructs. Despite advances in bioscaffold design, there is yet to be a corneal equivalent that effectively mimics both the [...] Read more.
The worldwide limited availability of suitable corneal donor tissue has led to the development of alternatives, including keratoprostheses (Kpros) and tissue engineered (TE) constructs. Despite advances in bioscaffold design, there is yet to be a corneal equivalent that effectively mimics both the native tissue ultrastructure and biomechanical properties. Human decellularized corneas (DCs) could offer a safe, sustainable source of corneal tissue, increasing the donor pool and potentially reducing the risk of immune rejection after corneal graft surgery. Appropriate, human-specific, decellularization techniques and high-resolution, non-destructive analysis systems are required to ensure reproducible outputs can be achieved. If robust treatment and characterization processes can be developed, DCs could offer a supplement to the donor corneal pool, alongside superior cell culture systems for pharmacology, toxicology and drug discovery studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ophthalmic Biomaterials)

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