J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(2), 432-463; doi:10.3390/jfb3020432
Review

Bioactive and Biodegradable Nanocomposites and Hybrid Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration

1 Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9, Canada 2 Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1, Canada 3 Biomaterials Science, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1, Canada These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 April 2012; in revised form: 9 June 2012 / Accepted: 14 June 2012 / Published: 20 June 2012
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Abstract: Strategies for bone tissue engineering and regeneration rely on bioactive scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix and act as templates onto which cells attach, multiply, migrate and function. Of particular interest are nanocomposites and organic-inorganic (O/I) hybrid biomaterials based on selective combinations of biodegradable polymers and bioactive inorganic materials. In this paper, we review the current state of bioactive and biodegradable nanocomposite and O/I hybrid biomaterials and their applications in bone regeneration. We focus specifically on nanocomposites based on nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioactive glass (BG) fillers in combination with biodegradable polyesters and their hybrid counterparts. Topics include 3D scaffold design, materials that are widely used in bone regeneration, and recent trends in next generation biomaterials. We conclude with a perspective on the future application of nanocomposites and O/I hybrid biomaterials for regeneration of bone.
Keywords: bioactive glass; biodegradable polymers; bone regeneration; hydroxyapatite; organic-inorganic hybrid; nanocomposite

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MDPI and ACS Style

Allo, B.A.; Costa, D.O.; Dixon, S.J.; Mequanint, K.; Rizkalla, A.S. Bioactive and Biodegradable Nanocomposites and Hybrid Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration. J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3, 432-463.

AMA Style

Allo BA, Costa DO, Dixon SJ, Mequanint K, Rizkalla AS. Bioactive and Biodegradable Nanocomposites and Hybrid Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration. Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 2012; 3(2):432-463.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Allo, Bedilu A.; Costa, Daniel O.; Dixon, S. Jeffrey; Mequanint, Kibret; Rizkalla, Amin S. 2012. "Bioactive and Biodegradable Nanocomposites and Hybrid Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration." J. Funct. Biomater. 3, no. 2: 432-463.

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