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J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2010), Pages 1-107

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Salve Journal of Functional Biomaterials, ad maiòra!
J. Funct. Biomater. 2010, 1(1), 1-2; doi:10.3390/jfb1010001
Received: 3 June 2010 / Published: 23 June 2010
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Abstract
The biomaterials field is one of the largest and fastest growing research areas both in the scientific community and in the industrial one. Biomaterials are the result of collaborations between different disciplines: chemistry, medicine, pharmacology, engineering and biology. The objective of this collaboration
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The biomaterials field is one of the largest and fastest growing research areas both in the scientific community and in the industrial one. Biomaterials are the result of collaborations between different disciplines: chemistry, medicine, pharmacology, engineering and biology. The objective of this collaboration is to lead to the implementation of new devices to restore form and human body functions. The research on biomaterials reflects the constant need to replace or supplement human tissues and organs that have been physiologically compromised due to disease or traumatic events. [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Biocompatibility and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity of Phosphorylated Chitooligosaccharides on the Osteosarcoma MG63 Cell Line
J. Funct. Biomater. 2010, 1(1), 3-13; doi:10.3390/jfb1010003
Received: 26 August 2010 / Revised: 7 October 2010 / Accepted: 20 October 2010 / Published: 22 October 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1120 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phosphorylated chitooligosaccharides (P-COS) were prepared using a H3PO4, P2O5, Et3PO4 and hexanol solvent system. The P-COS were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermo gravimetric-Differential Thermal Analyzer (TG-DTA), 13C NMR,
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Phosphorylated chitooligosaccharides (P-COS) were prepared using a H3PO4, P2O5, Et3PO4 and hexanol solvent system. The P-COS were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermo gravimetric-Differential Thermal Analyzer (TG-DTA), 13C NMR, 31P NMR, X-ray diffraction analysis, solubility studies, biocompatibility and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity (ALP). The results reveal that phosphorylation occurred at the C3 and C6 position of OH groups and the C2 position of NH2 group. FT-IR confirmed no decomposition in pyranose ring in P-COS even with heating and treatment in acidic conditions. The amorphous nature of P-COS was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Further, the biocompatibility and alkaline phosphatase activity of P-COS were checked against the osteosarcoma MG63 cell line at different concentrations and no cytotoxicity was observed. After 12 h and 24 h of incubation, the ALP activity of P-COS was higher compared with the control group. These results suggest that P-COS is a biocompatible material and in future P-COS could open up a number of promising pharmaceutical and clinical applications to mankind. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Autologous Cell Delivery to the Skin-Implant Interface via the Lumen of Percutaneous Devices in vitro
J. Funct. Biomater. 2010, 1(1), 14-21; doi:10.3390/jfb1010014
Received: 18 October 2010 / Revised: 6 November 2010 / Accepted: 21 November 2010 / Published: 25 November 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (502 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Induced tissue regeneration around percutaneous medical implants could be a useful method to prevent the failure of the medical device, especially when the epidermal seal around the implant is disrupted and the implant must be maintained over a long period of time. In
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Induced tissue regeneration around percutaneous medical implants could be a useful method to prevent the failure of the medical device, especially when the epidermal seal around the implant is disrupted and the implant must be maintained over a long period of time. In this manuscript, a novel concept and technique is introduced in which autologous keratinocytes were delivered to the interfacial area of a skin-implant using the hollow interior of a fixator pin as a conduit. Full thickness human skin explants discarded from surgeries were cultured at the air-liquid interface and were punctured to fit at the bottom of hollow cylindrical stainless steel fixator pins. Autologous keratinocytes, previously extracted from the same piece of skin and cultured separately, were delivered to the specimens thorough the interior of the hollow pins. The delivered cells survived the process and resembled undifferentiated epithelium, with variations in size and shape. Viability was demonstrated by the lack of morphologic evidence of necrosis or apoptosis. Although the cells did not form organized epithelial structures, differentiation toward a keratinocyte phenotype was evident immunohistochemically. These results suggest that an adaptation of this technique could be useful for the treatment of complications arising from the contact between skin and percutaneous devices in vivo. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Calcium Orthophosphates as Bioceramics: State of the Art
J. Funct. Biomater. 2010, 1(1), 22-107; doi:10.3390/jfb1010022
Received: 21 October 2010 / Revised: 16 November 2010 / Accepted: 25 November 2010 / Published: 30 November 2010
Cited by 48 | PDF Full-text (1437 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the late 1960s, much interest was raised in regard to biomedical applications of various ceramic materials. A little bit later, such materials were named bioceramics. This review is limited to bioceramics prepared from calcium orthophosphates only, which belong to the categories of
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In the late 1960s, much interest was raised in regard to biomedical applications of various ceramic materials. A little bit later, such materials were named bioceramics. This review is limited to bioceramics prepared from calcium orthophosphates only, which belong to the categories of bioactive and bioresorbable compounds. There have been a number of important advances in this field during the past 30–40 years. Namely, by structural and compositional control, it became possible to choose whether calcium orthophosphate bioceramics were biologically stable once incorporated within the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics—which is able to promote regeneration of bones—was developed. Presently, calcium orthophosphate bioceramics are available in the form of particulates, blocks, cements, coatings, customized designs for specific applications and as injectable composites in a polymer carrier. Current biomedical applications include artificial replacements for hips, knees, teeth, tendons and ligaments, as well as repair for periodontal disease, maxillofacial reconstruction, augmentation and stabilization of the jawbone, spinal fusion and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Exploratory studies demonstrate potential applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics as scaffolds, drug delivery systems, as well as carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and/or various types of cells for tissue engineering purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Substitutes)

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