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Computation 2017, 5(1), 3; doi:10.3390/computation5010003

Critical Issues in Modelling Lymph Node Physiology

1
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny 141701 , Moscow Region, Russia
2
College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales, UK
3
Institute of Immunobiology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, St. Gallen CH-9007, Switzerland
4
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia
5
Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the RAS, Moscow 119333, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rainer Breitling
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 24 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiscale and Hybrid Modeling of the Living Systems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [12486 KB, uploaded 24 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

In this study, we discuss critical issues in modelling the structure and function of lymph nodes (LNs), with emphasis on how LN physiology is related to its multi-scale structural organization. In addition to macroscopic domains such as B-cell follicles and the T cell zone, there are vascular networks which play a key role in the delivery of information to the inner parts of the LN, i.e., the conduit and blood microvascular networks. We propose object-oriented computational algorithms to model the 3D geometry of the fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC) network and the microvasculature. Assuming that a conduit cylinder is densely packed with collagen fibers, the computational flow study predicted that the diffusion should be a dominating process in mass transport than convective flow. The geometry models are used to analyze the lymph flow properties through the conduit network in unperturbed- and damaged states of the LN. The analysis predicts that elimination of up to 60%–90% of edges is required to stop the lymph flux. This result suggests a high degree of functional robustness of the network. View Full-Text
Keywords: computational model; lymph node; multiscale structure; vascular network; fibroblastic reticular cells; conduit network; lymph flow; destruction of conduits computational model; lymph node; multiscale structure; vascular network; fibroblastic reticular cells; conduit network; lymph flow; destruction of conduits
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Grebennikov, D.; van Loon, R.; Novkovic, M.; Onder, L.; Savinkov, R.; Sazonov, I.; Tretyakova, R.; Watson, D.J.; Bocharov, G. Critical Issues in Modelling Lymph Node Physiology. Computation 2017, 5, 3.

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