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Information 2017, 8(1), 15; doi:10.3390/info8010015

An Introduction to the Foundations of Chemical Information Theory. Tarski–Lesniewski Logical Structures and the Organization of Natural Sorts and Kinds

Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA
Academic Editor: Willy Susilo
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 19 January 2017 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 25 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry and Information)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [207 KB, uploaded 25 January 2017]

Abstract

Organic mathematics is an applied mathematics of philosophical atomism. The order of the chemical elements in the table of elements is the source of order for the logical operations of addition and subtraction of atomic numbers. The inverse square laws of physics are the source of organization of subatomic structures of chemical atoms (atomic and molecular structures). These facts are foundational to the logic of the chemical sciences and are therefore the scientific basis for chemical information theory. The theories and facts of the chemical sciences are so perplex that several forms of symbolic representations are necessary to communicate the broad range of scientific concepts used to inquire into the nature of natural sorts and kinds. The logics proposed by Tarski, Lesniewski and Malatesta are applied to the construction of a numerical “spine” of perplex numbers representing atomic numbers as meta-symbols in meta-languages. The orbital angular momenta of certain collections of electrical particles (also known as “handedness”) are critical components in constructing the logical propositions of the perplex number “spine”. Biological communication channels can function if and only if the natural sorts and kinds are consistent with the matching patterns of the optical isomers. The terms spinners and twisters are introduced to express the electro-mechanical torques necessary for encoding chemical information. This hypothesis can be tested by several categories of experiments, including clinical pharmaco-dynamics and clinical toxico-dynamics of dissymmetric isomers of different sorts and kinds. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemical information; perplex numbers; communication; natural kinds; constructionism; hybrid logic; Tarski logic; Lesniewski logic; semiosis; emergence chemical information; perplex numbers; communication; natural kinds; constructionism; hybrid logic; Tarski logic; Lesniewski logic; semiosis; emergence
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chandler, J.L.R. An Introduction to the Foundations of Chemical Information Theory. Tarski–Lesniewski Logical Structures and the Organization of Natural Sorts and Kinds. Information 2017, 8, 15.

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