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Information, Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2016)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Big Network Traffic Data Fusion Approach Based on Fisher and Deep Auto-Encoder
Information 2016, 7(2), 20; doi:10.3390/info7020020
Received: 27 January 2016 / Revised: 6 March 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2016 / Published: 23 March 2016
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Abstract
Data fusion is usually performed prior to classification in order to reduce the input space. These dimensionality reduction techniques help to decline the complexity of the classification model and thus improve the classification performance. The traditional supervised methods demand labeled samples, and the
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Data fusion is usually performed prior to classification in order to reduce the input space. These dimensionality reduction techniques help to decline the complexity of the classification model and thus improve the classification performance. The traditional supervised methods demand labeled samples, and the current network traffic data mostly is not labeled. Thereby, better learners will be built by using both labeled and unlabeled data, than using each one alone. In this paper, a novel network traffic data fusion approach based on Fisher and deep auto-encoder (DFA-F-DAE) is proposed to reduce the data dimensions and the complexity of computation. The experimental results show that the DFA-F-DAE improves the generalization ability of the three classification algorithms (J48, back propagation neural network (BPNN), and support vector machine (SVM)) by data dimensionality reduction. We found that the DFA-F-DAE remarkably improves the efficiency of big network traffic classification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Big Data Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Geospatially Constrained Workflow Modeling and Implementation
Information 2016, 7(2), 30; doi:10.3390/info7020030
Received: 8 April 2016 / Revised: 17 May 2016 / Accepted: 24 May 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
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Abstract
With rapid development and application of mobile internet, geographic information in the field of business process is now more widely used. There are more and more researches in the field of the relationships between geographic information and workflow modeling. According to the workflow
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With rapid development and application of mobile internet, geographic information in the field of business process is now more widely used. There are more and more researches in the field of the relationships between geographic information and workflow modeling. According to the workflow with geospatial constraints, this paper first discusses the geospatial constraints theory deeply, proposes a new concept of geospatial constraints unit, and then designs a geospatial constraint net model (GCNet). Secondly, this paper designs a new workflow model with geospatial constraints (GCWF-net) based on GCNet and workflow net (WF-net), and then analyzes some properties of the model. Finally, this paper discusses how to put GCWF-net into application practice from three aspects: extending PNML (Petri Net Markup Language) labels for GCWF-net, converting PNML to BPEL (Business Process Execution Language) and implementing BPEL. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Efficient Dynamic Integrity Verification for Big Data Supporting Users Revocability
Information 2016, 7(2), 31; doi:10.3390/info7020031
Received: 6 February 2016 / Revised: 9 April 2016 / Accepted: 12 April 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
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Abstract
With the advent of the big data era, cloud data storage and retrieval have become popular for efficient data management in large companies and organizations, thus they can enjoy the on-demand high-quality cloud storage service. Meanwhile, for security reasons, those companies and organizations
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With the advent of the big data era, cloud data storage and retrieval have become popular for efficient data management in large companies and organizations, thus they can enjoy the on-demand high-quality cloud storage service. Meanwhile, for security reasons, those companies and organizations would like to verify the integrity of their data once storing it in the cloud. To address this issue, they need a proper cloud storage auditing scheme which matches their actual demands. Current research often focuses on the situation where the data manager owns the data; however, the data belongs to the company, rather than the data managers in the real situation which has been overlooked. For example, the current data manager is no longer suitable to manage the data stored in the cloud after a period and will be replaced by another one. The successor needs to verify the integrity of the former managed data; this problem is obviously inevitable in reality. In this paper, we fill this gap by giving a practical efficient revocable privacy-preserving public auditing scheme for cloud storage meeting the auditing requirement of large companies and organization’s data transfer. The scheme is conceptually simple and is proven to be secure even when the cloud service provider conspires with revoked users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Big Data Technology)
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Open AccessArticle On-Body Smartphone Localization with an Accelerometer
Information 2016, 7(2), 21; doi:10.3390/info7020021
Received: 17 November 2015 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 10 March 2016 / Published: 29 March 2016
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Abstract
A user of a smartphone may feel convenient, happy, safe, etc., if his/her smartphone works smartly based on his/her context or the context of the device. In this article, we deal with the position of a smartphone on the body and carrying
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A user of a smartphone may feel convenient, happy, safe, etc., if his/her smartphone works smartly based on his/her context or the context of the device. In this article, we deal with the position of a smartphone on the body and carrying items like bags as the context of a device. The storing position of a smartphone impacts the performance of the notification to a user, as well as the measurement of embedded sensors, which plays an important role in a device’s functionality control, accurate activity recognition and reliable environmental sensing. In this article, nine storing positions, including four types of bags, are subject to recognition using an accelerometer on a smartphone. In total, 63 features are selected as a set of features among 182 systematically-defined features, which can characterize and discriminate the motion of a smartphone terminal during walking. As a result of leave-one-subject-out cross-validation, an accuracy of 0.801 for the nine-class classification is shown, while an accuracy of 0.859 is obtained against five classes, which merges the subclasses of trouser pockets and bags. We also show the basic performance evaluation to select the proper window size and classifier. Furthermore, the analysis of the contributive features is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Information Technology and Intelligent Systems)
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Open AccessArticle An Approach to the Match between Experts and Users in a Fuzzy Linguistic Environment
Information 2016, 7(2), 22; doi:10.3390/info7020022
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 23 March 2016 / Accepted: 7 April 2016 / Published: 14 April 2016
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Abstract
Knowledge management systems are widely used to manage the knowledge in organizations. Consulting experts is an effective way to utilize tacit knowledge. The paper aims to optimize the match between users and experts to improve the efficiency of tacit knowledge-sharing. Firstly, expertise, trust
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Knowledge management systems are widely used to manage the knowledge in organizations. Consulting experts is an effective way to utilize tacit knowledge. The paper aims to optimize the match between users and experts to improve the efficiency of tacit knowledge-sharing. Firstly, expertise, trust and feedback are defined to characterize the preference of users for experts. Meanwhile, factors including trust, relationship and knowledge distance are defined to characterize the preference of experts for users. Then, a new method for the measurement of satisfaction based on the principle of axiomatic design is proposed. Afterwards, in order to maximize the satisfaction of both experts and users, the optimization model is constructed and the optimal solution is shown in the matching results. The evaluation results show the approach is feasible and performs well. The approach provides new insights for research on tacit knowledge-sharing. It can be applied as a tool to match experts with users in the development of knowledge management systems. The fuzzy linguistic method facilitates the expression of opinions, and as a result, the users-system interaction is improved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Using Proven Reference Monitor Patterns for Security Evaluation
Information 2016, 7(2), 23; doi:10.3390/info7020023
Received: 12 February 2016 / Revised: 5 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2884 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The most effective approach to evaluating the security of complex systems is to deliberately construct the systems using security patterns specifically designed to make them evaluable. Just such an integrated set of security patterns was created decades ago based on the Reference Monitor
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The most effective approach to evaluating the security of complex systems is to deliberately construct the systems using security patterns specifically designed to make them evaluable. Just such an integrated set of security patterns was created decades ago based on the Reference Monitor abstraction. An associated systematic security engineering and evaluation methodology was codified as an engineering standard in the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC). This paper explains how the TCSEC and its Trusted Network Interpretation (TNI) constitute a set of security patterns for large, complex and distributed systems and how those patterns have been repeatedly and successfully used to create and evaluate some of the most secure government and commercial systems ever developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluating the Security of Complex Systems)
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Open AccessArticle A Framework for Measuring Security as a System Property in Cyberphysical Systems
Information 2016, 7(2), 33; doi:10.3390/info7020033
Received: 15 February 2016 / Revised: 22 May 2016 / Accepted: 3 June 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper addresses the challenge of measuring security, understood as a system property, of cyberphysical systems, in the category of similar properties, such as safety and reliability. First, it attempts to define precisely what security, as a system property, really is. Then, an
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This paper addresses the challenge of measuring security, understood as a system property, of cyberphysical systems, in the category of similar properties, such as safety and reliability. First, it attempts to define precisely what security, as a system property, really is. Then, an application context is presented, in terms of an attack surface in cyberphysical systems. Contemporary approaches related to the principles of measuring software properties are also discussed, with emphasis on building models. These concepts are illustrated in several case studies, based on previous work of the authors, to conduct experimental security measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluating the Security of Complex Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Implementation Support of Security Design Patterns Using Test Templates
Information 2016, 7(2), 34; doi:10.3390/info7020034
Received: 15 February 2016 / Revised: 15 May 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
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Abstract
Security patterns are intended to support software developers as the patterns encapsulate security expert knowledge. However, these patterns may be inappropriately applied because most developers are not security experts, leading to threats and vulnerabilities. Here we propose a support method for security design
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Security patterns are intended to support software developers as the patterns encapsulate security expert knowledge. However, these patterns may be inappropriately applied because most developers are not security experts, leading to threats and vulnerabilities. Here we propose a support method for security design patterns in the implementation phase of software development. Our method creates a test template from a security design pattern, consisting of an “aspect test template” to observe the internal processing and a “test case template”. Providing design information creates a test from the test template with a tool. Because our test template is reusable, it can easily perform a test to validate a security design pattern. In an experiment involving four students majoring in information sciences, we confirm that our method can realize an effective test, verify pattern applications, and support pattern implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluating the Security of Complex Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Super-Activation as a Unique Feature of Secure Communication in Malicious Environments
Information 2016, 7(2), 24; doi:10.3390/info7020024
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 25 April 2016 / Accepted: 27 April 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
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Abstract
The wiretap channel models secure communication between two users in the presence of an eavesdropper who must be kept ignorant of transmitted messages. This communication scenario is studied for arbitrarily varying channels (AVCs), in which the legitimate users know only that the true
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The wiretap channel models secure communication between two users in the presence of an eavesdropper who must be kept ignorant of transmitted messages. This communication scenario is studied for arbitrarily varying channels (AVCs), in which the legitimate users know only that the true channel realization comes from a pre-specified uncertainty set and that it varies from channel use to channel use in an arbitrary and unknown manner. This concept not only captures the case of channel uncertainty, but also models scenarios in which malevolent adversaries influence or jam the transmission of the legitimate users. For secure communication over orthogonal arbitrarily varying wiretap channels (AVWCs) it has been shown that the phenomenon of super-activation occurs; that is, there are orthogonal AVWCs, each having zero secrecy capacity, which allow for transmission with positive rate if they are used together. It is shown that for such orthogonal AVWCs super-activation is generic in the sense that whenever super-activation is possible, it is possible for all AVWCs in a certain neighborhood as well. As a consequence, a super-activated AVWC is robust and continuous in the uncertainty set, although a single AVWC might not be. Moreover, it is shown that the question of super-activation and the continuity of the secrecy capacity solely depends on the legitimate link. Accordingly, the single-user AVC is subsequently studied and it is shown that in this case, super-activation for non-secure message transmission is not possible making it a unique feature of secure communication over AVWCs. However, the capacity for message transmission of the single-user AVC is shown to be super-additive including a complete characterization. Such knowledge is important for medium access control and in particular resource allocation as it determines the overall performance of a system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Layer Security in Wireless Networks)
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Open AccessArticle A Specification-Based IDS for Detecting Attacks on RPL-Based Network Topology
Information 2016, 7(2), 25; doi:10.3390/info7020025
Received: 1 March 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 May 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
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Abstract
Routing Protocol for Low power and Lossy network (RPL) topology attacks can downgrade the network performance significantly by disrupting the optimal protocol structure. To detect such threats, we propose a RPL-specification, obtained by a semi-auto profiling technique that constructs a high-level abstract of
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Routing Protocol for Low power and Lossy network (RPL) topology attacks can downgrade the network performance significantly by disrupting the optimal protocol structure. To detect such threats, we propose a RPL-specification, obtained by a semi-auto profiling technique that constructs a high-level abstract of operations through network simulation traces, to use as reference for verifying the node behaviors. This specification, including all the legitimate protocol states and transitions with corresponding statistics, will be implemented as a set of rules in the intrusion detection agents, in the form of the cluster heads propagated to monitor the whole network. In order to save resources, we set the cluster members to report related information about itself and other neighbors to the cluster head instead of making the head overhearing all the communication. As a result, information about a cluster member will be reported by different neighbors, which allow the cluster head to do cross-check. We propose to record the sequence in RPL Information Object (DIO) and Information Solicitation (DIS) messages to eliminate the synchronized issue created by the delay in transmitting the report, in which the cluster head only does cross-check on information that come from sources with the same sequence. Simulation results show that the proposed Intrusion Detection System (IDS) has a high accuracy rate in detecting RPL topology attacks, while only creating insignificant overhead (about 6.3%) that enable its scalability in large-scale network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preserving Privacy and Security in IoT)
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Open AccessArticle User in the Loop: Adaptive Smart Homes Exploiting User Feedback—State of the Art and Future Directions
Information 2016, 7(2), 35; doi:10.3390/info7020035
Received: 12 April 2016 / Revised: 17 May 2016 / Accepted: 3 June 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
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Abstract
Due to the decrease of sensor and actuator prices and their ease of installation, smart homes and smart environments are more and more exploited in automation and health applications. In these applications, activity recognition has an important place. This article presents a general
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Due to the decrease of sensor and actuator prices and their ease of installation, smart homes and smart environments are more and more exploited in automation and health applications. In these applications, activity recognition has an important place. This article presents a general architecture that is responsible for adapting automation for the different users of the smart home while recognizing their activities. For that, semi-supervised learning algorithms and Markov-based models are used to determine the preferences of the user considering a combination of: (1) observations of the data that have been acquired since the start of the experiment and (2) feedback of the users on decisions that have been taken by the automation. We present preliminarily simulated experimental results regarding the determination of preferences for a user. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Home)
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Open AccessArticle The Potential of Three Computer-Based Communication Activities for Supporting Older Adult Independent Living
Information 2016, 7(2), 26; doi:10.3390/info7020026
Received: 27 April 2016 / Revised: 18 May 2016 / Accepted: 18 May 2016 / Published: 24 May 2016
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Abstract
Technology has become an increasingly integral part of life. For example, technology allows individuals to stay in touch with loved ones, obtain medical services through telehealthcare, and enjoy an overall higher quality of life. Particularly for older adults, using technology increases the likelihood
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Technology has become an increasingly integral part of life. For example, technology allows individuals to stay in touch with loved ones, obtain medical services through telehealthcare, and enjoy an overall higher quality of life. Particularly for older adults, using technology increases the likelihood that they will maintain their independence and autonomy. Long-distance caregiving has recently become a feasible option where caregivers for older adults can access reports and information about their loved one’s patterns that day (e.g., food and medication intake). Technology may be able to offset age-related challenges (e.g., caregiving, accessing healthcare, decreased social networks) by applying technology to the needs of older adults. Solutions for meeting such challenges, however, have been less targeted. In addition, the healthcare system is evolving to focus on providing options and services in the home. This has direct implications for older adults, as the majority of healthcare services are utilized by older adults. Research is still at the beginning stages of developing successful technology tools that are compatible with older adult users. Therefore, the design, implementation, and outcome of such computer-based communication activities will be discussed in this paper in order to guide future endeavors in technology marketed for older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Home)
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Open AccessArticle Feature Engineering for Recognizing Adverse Drug Reactions from Twitter Posts
Information 2016, 7(2), 27; doi:10.3390/info7020027
Received: 30 March 2016 / Revised: 17 May 2016 / Accepted: 18 May 2016 / Published: 25 May 2016
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Abstract
Social media platforms are emerging digital communication channels that provide an easy way for common people to share their health and medication experiences online. With more people discussing their health information online publicly, social media platforms present a rich source of information for
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Social media platforms are emerging digital communication channels that provide an easy way for common people to share their health and medication experiences online. With more people discussing their health information online publicly, social media platforms present a rich source of information for exploring adverse drug reactions (ADRs). ADRs are major public health problems that result in deaths and hospitalizations of millions of people. Unfortunately, not all ADRs are identified before a drug is made available in the market. In this study, an ADR event monitoring system is developed which can recognize ADR mentions from a tweet and classify its assertion. We explored several entity recognition features, feature conjunctions, and feature selection and analyzed their characteristics and impacts on the recognition of ADRs, which have never been studied previously. The results demonstrate that the entity recognition performance for ADR can achieve an F-score of 0.562 on the PSB Social Media Mining shared task dataset, which outperforms the partial-matching-based method by 0.122. After feature selection, the F-score can be further improved by 0.026. This novel technique of text mining utilizing shared online social media data will open an array of opportunities for researchers to explore various health related issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Big Data Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Computer-Aided Identification and Validation of Privacy Requirements
Information 2016, 7(2), 28; doi:10.3390/info7020028
Received: 15 February 2016 / Revised: 12 May 2016 / Accepted: 21 May 2016 / Published: 26 May 2016
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Abstract
Privacy is a software quality that is closely related to security. The main difference is that security properties aim at the protection of assets that are crucial for the considered system, and privacy aims at the protection of personal data that are processed
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Privacy is a software quality that is closely related to security. The main difference is that security properties aim at the protection of assets that are crucial for the considered system, and privacy aims at the protection of personal data that are processed by the system. The identification of privacy protection needs in complex systems is a hard and error prone task. Stakeholders whose personal data are processed might be overlooked, or the sensitivity and the need of protection of the personal data might be underestimated. The later personal data and the needs to protect them are identified during the development process, the more expensive it is to fix these issues, because the needed changes of the system-to-be often affect many functionalities. In this paper, we present a systematic method to identify the privacy needs of a software system based on a set of functional requirements by extending the problem-based privacy analysis (ProPAn) method. Our method is tool-supported and automated where possible to reduce the effort that has to be spent for the privacy analysis, which is especially important when considering complex systems. The contribution of this paper is a semi-automatic method to identify the relevant privacy requirements for a software-to-be based on its functional requirements. The considered privacy requirements address all dimensions of privacy that are relevant for software development. As our method is solely based on the functional requirements of the system to be, we enable users of our method to identify the privacy protection needs that have to be addressed by the software-to-be at an early stage of the development. As initial evaluation of our method, we show its applicability on a small electronic health system scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluating the Security of Complex Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Minimax Duality for MIMO Interference Networks
Information 2016, 7(2), 19; doi:10.3390/info7020019
Received: 1 November 2015 / Revised: 25 January 2016 / Accepted: 6 February 2016 / Published: 23 March 2016
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Abstract
A minimax duality for a Gaussian mutual information expression was introduced by Yu. An interesting observation is the relationship between cost constraints on the transmit covariances and noise covariances in the dual problem via Lagrangian multipliers. We introduce a minimax duality for general
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A minimax duality for a Gaussian mutual information expression was introduced by Yu. An interesting observation is the relationship between cost constraints on the transmit covariances and noise covariances in the dual problem via Lagrangian multipliers. We introduce a minimax duality for general MIMO interference networks, where noise and transmit covariances are optimized subject to linear conic constraints. We observe a fully symmetric relationship between the solutions of both networks, where the roles of the optimization variables and Lagrangian multipliers are inverted. The least favorable noise covariance itself provides a Lagrangian multiplier for the linear conic constraint on the transmit covariance in the dual network, while the transmit covariance provides a Lagrangian multiplier for the constraint on the interference plus noise covariance in the dual network. The degrees of freedom available for optimization are constituted by linear subspaces, where the orthogonal subspaces induce the constraints in the dual network. For the proof of our duality we make use of the existing polite water-filling network duality and as a by-product we are able to show that maximization problems in MIMO interference networks have a zero-duality gap for a special formulation of the dual function. Our minimax duality unifies and extends several results, including the original minimax duality and other known network dualities. New results and applications are MIMO transmission strategies that manage and handle uncertainty due to unknown inter-cell interference and information theoretic proofs concerning cooperation in networks and optimality of proper signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communication Theory)
Open AccessArticle Measuring Knowledge Management Performance in Organizations: An Integrative Framework of Balanced Scorecard and Fuzzy Evaluation
Information 2016, 7(2), 29; doi:10.3390/info7020029
Received: 19 March 2016 / Revised: 30 April 2016 / Accepted: 24 May 2016 / Published: 26 May 2016
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Abstract
As an important part of knowledge management (KM), the KM performance evaluation tries to find out the key factors restraining the enhancement of the enterprises' performance. This paper investigates the feasibility of the balanced scorecard (BSC) method in enterprise knowledge management and then
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As an important part of knowledge management (KM), the KM performance evaluation tries to find out the key factors restraining the enhancement of the enterprises' performance. This paper investigates the feasibility of the balanced scorecard (BSC) method in enterprise knowledge management and then proposes a simplified and applicable performance evaluation model based on the BSC approach. Finally, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) is used to evaluate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed model. The result shows that the model is useful for evaluating the performance of KM in enterprises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Speech Compression
Information 2016, 7(2), 32; doi:10.3390/info7020032
Received: 22 April 2016 / Revised: 24 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 3 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4364 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Speech compression is a key technology underlying digital cellular communications, VoIP, voicemail, and voice response systems. We trace the evolution of speech coding based on the linear prediction model, highlight the key milestones in speech coding, and outline the structures of the most
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Speech compression is a key technology underlying digital cellular communications, VoIP, voicemail, and voice response systems. We trace the evolution of speech coding based on the linear prediction model, highlight the key milestones in speech coding, and outline the structures of the most important speech coding standards. Current challenges, future research directions, fundamental limits on performance, and the critical open problem of speech coding for emergency first responders are all discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Information Compression and Coding)
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