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Information, Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2016)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Information in 2015
Information 2016, 7(1), 2; doi:10.3390/info7010002
Received: 21 January 2016 / Accepted: 21 January 2016 / Published: 21 January 2016
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Abstract
The editors of Information would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Hierarchy and the Nature of Information
Information 2016, 7(1), 1; doi:10.3390/info7010001
Received: 7 October 2015 / Revised: 18 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 January 2016 / Published: 20 January 2016
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Abstract
We address the nature of information from a systemic structural point of view. Starting from the Natural hierarchy of living systems, we elucidate its decomposition into two partial hierarchies associated with its extant levels and inter-level regions, respectively. External observation of a hierarchical
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We address the nature of information from a systemic structural point of view. Starting from the Natural hierarchy of living systems, we elucidate its decomposition into two partial hierarchies associated with its extant levels and inter-level regions, respectively. External observation of a hierarchical system involves the generation of approximate hyperscalar representations of these two partials, which then reintegrate to give a singular metascalar result. We relate Havel’s categories of reality and Peirce’s categories of experience to this result, and indicate that the ultimate result of the reintegration of hyperscalar data and context is a sign which is information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the ISIS Summit Vienna 2015)
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Open AccessArticle Cross-Entropy-Based Energy-Efficient Radio Resource Management in HetNets with Coordinated Multiple Points
Information 2016, 7(1), 3; doi:10.3390/info7010003
Received: 1 November 2015 / Revised: 26 January 2016 / Accepted: 26 January 2016 / Published: 2 February 2016
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Abstract
Energy efficiency and spectrum efficiency are the most important issues for future mobile systems. Heterogeneous networks (HetNets) with coordinated multiple points (CoMP) are wildly approved as a promising solution to meet increasing demands of mobile data traffic and to reduce energy consumptions. However,
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Energy efficiency and spectrum efficiency are the most important issues for future mobile systems. Heterogeneous networks (HetNets) with coordinated multiple points (CoMP) are wildly approved as a promising solution to meet increasing demands of mobile data traffic and to reduce energy consumptions. However, hyper-dense deployments and complex coordination mechanisms introduce several challenges in radio resource management (RRM) of mobile communication systems. To address this issue, we present an RRM approach for CoMP-based HetNets, which aims to maximize weighted energy efficiency while guaranteeing the data rate of each transmission. The proposed RRM approach is based on a cross-entropy (CE) optimization method that is an effective and low-complexity heuristic algorithm. Furthermore, we also give the implementations of the proposed RRM approach in centralized and decentralized mode, respectively. At last, extensive simulations are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Closed-Loop Feedback Computation Model of Dynamical Reputation Based on the Local Trust Evaluation in Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce
Information 2016, 7(1), 4; doi:10.3390/info7010004
Received: 18 December 2015 / Revised: 25 January 2016 / Accepted: 27 January 2016 / Published: 2 February 2016
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Abstract
Trust and reputation are important factors that influence the success of both traditional transactions in physical social networks and modern e-commerce in virtual Internet environments. It is difficult to define the concept of trust and quantify it because trust has both subjective and
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Trust and reputation are important factors that influence the success of both traditional transactions in physical social networks and modern e-commerce in virtual Internet environments. It is difficult to define the concept of trust and quantify it because trust has both subjective and objective characteristics at the same time. A well-reported issue with reputation management system in business-to-consumer (BtoC) e-commerce is the “all good reputation” problem. In order to deal with the confusion, a new computational model of reputation is proposed in this paper. The ratings of each customer are set as basic trust score events. In addition, the time series of massive ratings are aggregated to formulate the sellers’ local temporal trust scores by Beta distribution. A logical model of trust and reputation is established based on the analysis of the dynamical relationship between trust and reputation. As for single goods with repeat transactions, an iterative mathematical model of trust and reputation is established with a closed-loop feedback mechanism. Numerical experiments on repeated transactions recorded over a period of 24 months are performed. The experimental results show that the proposed method plays guiding roles for both theoretical research into trust and reputation and the practical design of reputation systems in BtoC e-commerce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Processes)
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Open AccessArticle The Treewidth of Induced Graphs of Conditional Preference Networks Is Small
Information 2016, 7(1), 5; doi:10.3390/info7010005
Received: 16 September 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 14 February 2016
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Abstract
Conditional preference networks (CP-nets) are recently an emerging topic as a graphical model for compactly representing ordinal conditional preference relations on multi-attribute domains. As we know, the treewidth, which can decrease the solving complexity for many intractability problems, is exactly a fundamental property
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Conditional preference networks (CP-nets) are recently an emerging topic as a graphical model for compactly representing ordinal conditional preference relations on multi-attribute domains. As we know, the treewidth, which can decrease the solving complexity for many intractability problems, is exactly a fundamental property of a graph. Therefore, we can utilize treewidth to solve some reasoning tasks on induced graphs, such as the dominance queries on the CP-nets in the future. In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm for computing the treewidth of induced graphs of CP-nets; what we need is to make an assumption that the induced graph of a CP-net has been given. Then, we can leverage the Bucket Elimination technique to solve treewidth within polynomial time. At last, it is revealed that by our experiment, the treewidth of induced graphs of CP-nets is much smaller with regard to the number of vertices. For example, for an induced graph of CP-net with 1024 vertices, its treewidth is only 10. As far as we know, this is the first time, using the Bucket Elimination, to compute the treewidth of an induced graph of a CP-net. This approach for solving the treewidth may lay a good foundation for efficiently solving dominance queries on CP-nets in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Theory and Methodology)
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Open AccessArticle A Feature Selection Method for Large-Scale Network Traffic Classification Based on Spark
Information 2016, 7(1), 6; doi:10.3390/info7010006
Received: 20 December 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 29 January 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
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Abstract
Currently, with the rapid increasing of data scales in network traffic classifications, how to select traffic features efficiently is becoming a big challenge. Although a number of traditional feature selection methods using the Hadoop-MapReduce framework have been proposed, the execution time was still
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Currently, with the rapid increasing of data scales in network traffic classifications, how to select traffic features efficiently is becoming a big challenge. Although a number of traditional feature selection methods using the Hadoop-MapReduce framework have been proposed, the execution time was still unsatisfactory with numeral iterative computations during the processing. To address this issue, an efficient feature selection method for network traffic based on a new parallel computing framework called Spark is proposed in this paper. In our approach, the complete feature set is firstly preprocessed based on Fisher score, and a sequential forward search strategy is employed for subsets. The optimal feature subset is then selected using the continuous iterations of the Spark computing framework. The implementation demonstrates that, on the precondition of keeping the classification accuracy, our method reduces the time cost of modeling and classification, and improves the execution efficiency of feature selection significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Big Data Technology)
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Open AccessArticle An Approach to the Classification of Cutting Vibration on Machine Tools
Information 2016, 7(1), 7; doi:10.3390/info7010007
Received: 15 November 2015 / Revised: 30 January 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
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Abstract
Predictions of cutting vibrations are necessary for improving the operational efficiency, product quality, and safety in the machining process, since the vibration is the main factor for resulting in machine faults. “Cutting vibration” may be caused by setting incorrect parameters before machining is
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Predictions of cutting vibrations are necessary for improving the operational efficiency, product quality, and safety in the machining process, since the vibration is the main factor for resulting in machine faults. “Cutting vibration” may be caused by setting incorrect parameters before machining is commenced and may affect the precision of the machined work piece. This raises the need to have an effective model that can be used to predict cutting vibrations. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) model to forecast and classify the cutting vibration of the intelligent machine tool is presented. The factors that may cause cutting vibrations is firstly identified and a dataset for the research purpose is constructed. Then, the applicability of the model is illustrated. Based on the results in the comparative analysis, the artificial neural network approach performed better than the others. Because the vibration can be forecasted and classified, the product quality can be managed. This work may help new workers to avoid operating machine tools incorrectly, and hence can decrease manufacturing costs. It is expected that this study can enhance the performance of machine tools in metalworking sectors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Minimum-Entropy Based Residual Range Cell Migration Correction for Bistatic Forward-Looking SAR
Information 2016, 7(1), 8; doi:10.3390/info7010008
Received: 20 October 2015 / Revised: 22 January 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2016 / Published: 16 February 2016
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Abstract
For bistatic forward-looking synthetic aperture radar (BFSAR), motion errors induce two adverse effects on the echo, namely, azimuth phase error and residual range cell migration (RCM). Under the presumption that residual RCM is within a range resolution cell, residual RCM can be neglected,
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For bistatic forward-looking synthetic aperture radar (BFSAR), motion errors induce two adverse effects on the echo, namely, azimuth phase error and residual range cell migration (RCM). Under the presumption that residual RCM is within a range resolution cell, residual RCM can be neglected, and azimuth phase error can be compensated utilizing autofocus methods. However, in the case that residual RCM exceeds the range resolution, two-dimensional defocus would emerge in the final image. Generally speaking, residual RCM is relatively small and can be neglected in monostatic SAR, while the unique characteristics of BFSAR makes the residual RCM exceeding range resolution cell inevitable. Furthermore, the excessive residual migration is increasingly encountered as resolutions become finer. To cope with such a problem, minimum-entropy based residual RCM correction method is developed in this paper. The proposed method eliminates the necessity of the parametric model when estimating the residual RCM. Moreover, it meets the practical needs of BFSAR owing to no requirement of exhaustive computation. Simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Processes)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Local Structure Descriptor for Color Image Retrieval
Information 2016, 7(1), 9; doi:10.3390/info7010009
Received: 19 November 2015 / Revised: 28 January 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
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Abstract
A novel local structure descriptor (LSD) for color image retrieval is proposed in this paper. Local structures are defined based on a similarity of edge orientation, and LSD is constructed using the underlying colors in local structures with similar edge direction. LSD can
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A novel local structure descriptor (LSD) for color image retrieval is proposed in this paper. Local structures are defined based on a similarity of edge orientation, and LSD is constructed using the underlying colors in local structures with similar edge direction. LSD can effectively combine color, texture and shape as a whole for image retrieval. LSH integrates the advantages of both statistical and structural texture description methods, and it possesses high indexing capability and low dimensionality. In addition, the proposed feature extraction algorithm does not need to train on a large scale training datasets, and it can extract local structure histogram based on LSD. The experimental results on the Corel image databases show that the descriptor has a better image retrieval performance than other descriptors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Processes)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Study on Weighted Central Moment and Its Application in 2D Shape Retrieval
Information 2016, 7(1), 10; doi:10.3390/info7010010
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 31 January 2016 / Accepted: 19 February 2016 / Published: 1 March 2016
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Abstract
Moment invariants have been extensively studied and widely used in object recognition. The pioneering investigation of moment invariants in pattern recognition was due to Hu, where a set of moment invariants for similarity transformation were developed using the theory of algebraic invariants. This
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Moment invariants have been extensively studied and widely used in object recognition. The pioneering investigation of moment invariants in pattern recognition was due to Hu, where a set of moment invariants for similarity transformation were developed using the theory of algebraic invariants. This paper details a comparative analysis on several modifications of the original Hu moment invariants which are used to describe and retrieve two-dimensional (2D) shapes with a single closed contour. The main contribution of this paper is that we propose several different weighting functions to calculate the central moment according to human visual processing. The comparative results are detailed through experimental analysis. The results suggest that the moment invariants improved by weighting functions can get a better retrieval performance than the original one does. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Invariance as a Tool for Ontology of Information
Information 2016, 7(1), 11; doi:10.3390/info7010011
Received: 31 October 2015 / Revised: 20 February 2016 / Accepted: 25 February 2016 / Published: 2 March 2016
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Abstract
Attempts to answer questions regarding the ontological status of information are frequently based on the assumption that information should be placed within an already existing framework of concepts of established ontological statuses related to science, in particular to physics. However, many concepts of
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Attempts to answer questions regarding the ontological status of information are frequently based on the assumption that information should be placed within an already existing framework of concepts of established ontological statuses related to science, in particular to physics. However, many concepts of physics have undetermined or questionable ontological foundations. We can look for a solution in the recognition of the fundamental role of invariance with respect to a change of reference frame and to other transformations as a criterion for objective existence. The importance of invariance (symmetry) as a criterion for a primary ontological status can be identified in the methodology of physics from its beginnings in the work of Galileo, to modern classifications of elementary particles. Thus, the study of the invariance of the theoretical description of information is proposed as the first step towards ontology of information. With the exception of only a few works among publications which set the paradigm of information studies, the issues of invariance were neglected. Orthodox analysis of information lacks conceptual framework for the study of invariance. The present paper shows how invariance can be formalized for the definition of information and, accompanying it, mathematical formalism proposed by the author in his earlier publications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the ISIS Summit Vienna 2015)
Open AccessArticle CoSpa: A Co-training Approach for Spam Review Identification with Support Vector Machine
Information 2016, 7(1), 12; doi:10.3390/info7010012
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 23 February 2016 / Accepted: 26 February 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
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Abstract
Spam reviews are increasingly appearing on the Internet to promote sales or defame competitors by misleading consumers with deceptive opinions. This paper proposes a co-training approach called CoSpa (Co-training for Spam review identification) to identify spam reviews by two views: one is the
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Spam reviews are increasingly appearing on the Internet to promote sales or defame competitors by misleading consumers with deceptive opinions. This paper proposes a co-training approach called CoSpa (Co-training for Spam review identification) to identify spam reviews by two views: one is the lexical terms derived from the textual content of the reviews and the other is the PCFG (Probabilistic Context-Free Grammars) rules derived from a deep syntax analysis of the reviews. Using SVM (Support Vector Machine) as the base classifier, we develop two strategies, CoSpa-C and CoSpa-U, embedded within the CoSpa approach. The CoSpa-C strategy selects unlabeled reviews classified with the largest confidence to augment the training dataset to retrain the classifier. The CoSpa-U strategy randomly selects unlabeled reviews with a uniform distribution of confidence. Experiments on the spam dataset and the deception dataset demonstrate that both the proposed CoSpa algorithms outperform the traditional SVM with lexical terms and PCFG rules in spam review identification. Moreover, the CoSpa-U strategy outperforms the CoSpa-C strategy when we use the absolute value of decision function of SVM as the confidence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle On Solving the Fuzzy Customer Information Problem in Multicommodity Multimodal Routing with Schedule-Based Services
Information 2016, 7(1), 13; doi:10.3390/info7010013
Received: 7 January 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 4 March 2016
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Abstract
In this study, we combine the fuzzy customer information problem with the multicommodity multimodal routing with schedule-based services which was explored in our previous study [1]. The fuzzy characteristics of the customer information are embodied in the demanded volumes of the multiple commodities
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In this study, we combine the fuzzy customer information problem with the multicommodity multimodal routing with schedule-based services which was explored in our previous study [1]. The fuzzy characteristics of the customer information are embodied in the demanded volumes of the multiple commodities and the time windows of their due dates. When the schedule-based services are considered in the routing, schedule constraints emerge because the operations of block container trains should follow their predetermined schedules. This will restrict the routes selection from space-time feasibility. To solve this combinatorial optimization problem, we first build a fuzzy chance-constrained nonlinear programming model based on fuzzy possibility theory. We then use a crisp equivalent method and a linearization method to transform the proposed model into the classical linear programming model that can be effectively solved by the standard mathematical programming software. Finally, a numerical case is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. The sensitivity of the best solution with respect to the values of the confidence levels is also examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Ultra-Reliable Link Adaptation for Downlink MISO Transmission in 5G Cellular Networks
Information 2016, 7(1), 14; doi:10.3390/info7010014
Received: 20 November 2015 / Revised: 23 February 2016 / Accepted: 25 February 2016 / Published: 4 March 2016
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Abstract
This paper discusses robust link adaptation for a downlink precoded multiple input single output system, for guaranteeing ultra-reliable (99.999%) transmissions to mobile users (e.g., slowly moving machines in a factory) served by a small cell network. The proposed technique compensates the effect of
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This paper discusses robust link adaptation for a downlink precoded multiple input single output system, for guaranteeing ultra-reliable (99.999%) transmissions to mobile users (e.g., slowly moving machines in a factory) served by a small cell network. The proposed technique compensates the effect of inaccurate channel state information (CSI) caused by user mobility, as well as the variation of precoders in the interfering cells. Both of these impairments translate into instability of the received signal-to-noise plus interference ratios (SINRs), and may lead to CSI mispredictions and potentially erroneous transmissions. We show that, by knowing the statistics of the propagation channels and the precoders variations, it is possible to compute a backoff that guarantees robust link adaptation. The backoff value is based on the statistics of realized SINR, and is consequently used to adapt the transmissions according to current channel state. Theoretical analysis accompanied by simulation results show that the proposed approach is suitable for attaining 5G ultra-reliability targets in realistic settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communication Theory)
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Open AccessArticle Information Extraction Under Privacy Constraints
Information 2016, 7(1), 15; doi:10.3390/info7010015
Received: 1 November 2015 / Revised: 24 February 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
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Abstract
A privacy-constrained information extraction problem is considered where for a pair of correlated discrete random variables (X,Y) governed by a given joint distribution, an agent observes Y and wants to convey to a potentially public user as much information about Y as possible
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A privacy-constrained information extraction problem is considered where for a pair of correlated discrete random variables (X,Y) governed by a given joint distribution, an agent observes Y and wants to convey to a potentially public user as much information about Y as possible while limiting the amount of information revealed about X. To this end, the so-called rate-privacy function is investigated to quantify the maximal amount of information (measured in terms of mutual information) that can be extracted from Y under a privacy constraint between X and the extracted information, where privacy is measured using either mutual information or maximal correlation. Properties of the rate-privacy function are analyzed and its information-theoretic and estimation-theoretic interpretations are presented for both the mutual information and maximal correlation privacy measures. It is also shown that the rate-privacy function admits a closed-form expression for a large family of joint distributions of (X,Y). Finally, the rate-privacy function under the mutual information privacy measure is considered for the case where (X,Y) has a joint probability density function by studying the problem where the extracted information is a uniform quantization of Y corrupted by additive Gaussian noise. The asymptotic behavior of the rate-privacy function is studied as the quantization resolution grows without bound and it is observed that not all of the properties of the rate-privacy function carry over from the discrete to the continuous case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communication Theory)
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Open AccessArticle Throughput Capacity of Selfish Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with General Node Density
Information 2016, 7(1), 16; doi:10.3390/info7010016
Received: 8 December 2015 / Revised: 4 March 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
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Abstract
In this paper, we study the throughput capacity of wireless networks considering the selfish feature of interaction between nodes. In our proposed network model, each node has a probability of cooperating to relay transmission. According to the extent of selfishness, we, by the
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In this paper, we study the throughput capacity of wireless networks considering the selfish feature of interaction between nodes. In our proposed network model, each node has a probability of cooperating to relay transmission. According to the extent of selfishness, we, by the application of percolation theory, construct a series of highways crossing the network. The transmission strategy is then divided into three consecutive phases. Comparing the rate in each phase, we find the bottleneck of rate is always in the highway phase. Finally, the result reveals that the node’s selfishness degrades the throughput with a factor of square root of the cooperative probability, whereas the node density has trivial impact on the throughput. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Theory and Methodology)
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Open AccessArticle Nearest Neighbor Search in the Metric Space of a Complex Network for Community Detection
Information 2016, 7(1), 17; doi:10.3390/info7010017
Received: 22 December 2015 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 11 March 2016 / Published: 16 March 2016
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Abstract
The objective of this article is to bridge the gap between two important research directions: (1) nearest neighbor search, which is a fundamental computational tool for large data analysis; and (2) complex network analysis, which deals with large real graphs but is generally
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The objective of this article is to bridge the gap between two important research directions: (1) nearest neighbor search, which is a fundamental computational tool for large data analysis; and (2) complex network analysis, which deals with large real graphs but is generally studied via graph theoretic analysis or spectral analysis. In this article, we have studied the nearest neighbor search problem in a complex network by the development of a suitable notion of nearness. The computation of efficient nearest neighbor search among the nodes of a complex network using the metric tree and locality sensitive hashing (LSH) are also studied and experimented. For evaluation of the proposed nearest neighbor search in a complex network, we applied it to a network community detection problem. Experiments are performed to verify the usefulness of nearness measures for the complex networks, the role of metric tree and LSH to compute fast and approximate node nearness and the the efficiency of community detection using nearest neighbor search. We observed that nearest neighbor between network nodes is a very efficient tool to explore better the community structure of the real networks. Several efficient approximation schemes are very useful for large networks, which hardly made any degradation of results, whereas they save lot of computational times, and nearest neighbor based community detection approach is very competitive in terms of efficiency and time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Online Social Networks and Implications)
Open AccessArticle Communication-Theoretic Model of Power Talk for a Single-Bus DC Microgrid
Information 2016, 7(1), 18; doi:10.3390/info7010018
Received: 20 November 2015 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 25 February 2016 / Published: 21 March 2016
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Abstract
Power talk is a method for communication among voltage control sources (VSCs) in DC microgrids (MGs), achieved through variations of the supplied power that is incurred by modulation of the parameters of the primary control. The physical medium upon which the communication channel
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Power talk is a method for communication among voltage control sources (VSCs) in DC microgrids (MGs), achieved through variations of the supplied power that is incurred by modulation of the parameters of the primary control. The physical medium upon which the communication channel is established is the voltage supply level of the common MG bus. In this paper, we show how to create power talk channels in all-to-all communication scenarios and implement the signaling and detection techniques, focusing on the construction and use of the constellations or arbitrary order. The main challenge to the proposed communication method stems from random shifts of the loci of the constellation symbols, which are due to random load variations in the MG. We investigate the impact that solutions that combat the effects of random load variations by re-establishing the detection regions have on the power talk rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communication Theory)
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