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Information, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2014), Pages 1-208

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Information in 2013
Information 2014, 5(1), 171; doi:10.3390/info5010171
Received: 25 February 2014 / Accepted: 25 February 2014 / Published: 25 February 2014
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Abstract The editors of Information would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2013. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle The SP Theory of Intelligence: Benefits and Applications
Information 2014, 5(1), 1-27; doi:10.3390/info5010001
Received: 26 May 2013 / Revised: 13 December 2013 / Accepted: 13 December 2013 / Published: 24 December 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article describes existing and expected benefits of the SP theory ofintelligence, and some potential applications. The theory aims to simplify and integrate ideasacross artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, and human perception and cognition,with information compression as a unifying theme. It combines conceptual [...] Read more.
This article describes existing and expected benefits of the SP theory ofintelligence, and some potential applications. The theory aims to simplify and integrate ideasacross artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, and human perception and cognition,with information compression as a unifying theme. It combines conceptual simplicitywith descriptive and explanatory power across several areas of computing and cognition.In the SP machine—an expression of the SP theory which is currently realized in theform of a computer model—there is potential for an overall simplification of computingsystems, including software. The SP theory promises deeper insights and better solutions inseveral areas of application including, most notably, unsupervised learning, natural languageprocessing, autonomous robots, computer vision, intelligent databases, software engineering,information compression, medical diagnosis and big data. There is also potential inareas such as the semantic web, bioinformatics, structuring of documents, the detection ofcomputer viruses, data fusion, new kinds of computer, and the development of scientifictheories. The theory promises seamless integration of structures and functions within andbetween different areas of application. The potential value, worldwide, of these benefits andapplications is at least $190 billion each year. Further development would be facilitatedby the creation of a high-parallel, open-source version of the SP machine, available toresearchers everywhere. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design and Construction of a Brain-Like Computer: A New Class of Frequency-Fractal Computing Using Wireless Communication in a Supramolecular Organic, Inorganic System
Information 2014, 5(1), 28-100; doi:10.3390/info5010028
Received: 6 August 2013 / Revised: 8 January 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2970 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Here, we introduce a new class of computer which does not use any circuit or logic gate. In fact, no program needs to be written: it learns by itself and writes its own program to solve a problem. Gödel’s incompleteness argument is [...] Read more.
Here, we introduce a new class of computer which does not use any circuit or logic gate. In fact, no program needs to be written: it learns by itself and writes its own program to solve a problem. Gödel’s incompleteness argument is explored here to devise an engine where an astronomically large number of “if-then” arguments are allowed to grow by self-assembly, based on the basic set of arguments written in the system, thus, we explore the beyond Turing path of computing but following a fundamentally different route adopted in the last half-a-century old non-Turing adventures. Our hardware is a multilayered seed structure. If we open the largest seed, which is the final hardware, we find several computing seed structures inside, if we take any of them and open, there are several computing seeds inside. We design and synthesize the smallest seed, the entire multilayered architecture grows by itself. The electromagnetic resonance band of each seed looks similar, but the seeds of any layer shares a common region in its resonance band with inner and upper layer, hence a chain of resonance bands is formed (frequency fractal) connecting the smallest to the largest seed (hence the name invincible rhythm or Ajeya Chhandam in Sanskrit). The computer solves intractable pattern search (Clique) problem without searching, since the right pattern written in it spontaneously replies back to the questioner. To learn, the hardware filters any kind of sensory input image into several layers of images, each containing basic geometric polygons (fractal decomposition), and builds a network among all layers, multi-sensory images are connected in all possible ways to generate “if” and “then” argument. Several such arguments and decisions (phase transition from “if” to “then”) self-assemble and form the two giant columns of arguments and rules of phase transition. Any input question is converted into a pattern as noted above, and these two astronomically large columns project a solution. The driving principle of computing is synchronization and de-synchronization of network paths, the system drives towards highest density of coupled arguments for maximum matching. Memory is located at all layers of the hardware. Learning, computing occurs everywhere simultaneously. Since resonance chain connects all computing seeds, wireless processing is feasible without a screening effect. The computing power is increased by maximizing the density of resonance states and bandwidth of the resonance chain together. We discovered this remarkable computing while studying the human brain, so we present a new model of the human brain in terms of an experimentally determined resonance chain with bandwidth 10−15 Hz (complete brain with all sensors) to 10+15 Hz (DNA) along with its implementation using a pure organic synthesis of entire computer (brain jelly) in our lab, software prototype as proof of concept and finally a new fourth circuit element (Hinductor) based beyond Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) hardware is also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Processes)
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Open AccessArticle New Times and New Challenges for Information Science: From Cellular Systems to Human Societies
Information 2014, 5(1), 101-119; doi:10.3390/info5010101
Received: 11 December 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 26 January 2014 / Published: 14 February 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The extraordinary scientific-technical, economic, and social transformations related to the widespread use of computers and to the whole information and communication technologies have not been accompanied by the development of a scientific “informational” perspective helping make a coherent sense of the spectacular [...] Read more.
The extraordinary scientific-technical, economic, and social transformations related to the widespread use of computers and to the whole information and communication technologies have not been accompanied by the development of a scientific “informational” perspective helping make a coherent sense of the spectacular changes occurring. Like in other industrial revolutions of the past, technical praxis antedates the emergence of theoretical disciplines. Apart from the difficulties in handling new empirical domains and in framing new ways of thinking, the case of information science implies the difficult re-evaluation of important bodies of knowledge already well accommodated in specific disciplines. Herein, we will discuss how a new understanding of the “natural information flows” as they prototypically occur in living beings—even in the simplest cells—could provide a sound basis for reappraising fundamental problems of the new science. The role of a renewed information science, multidisciplinarily conceived and empirically grounded, widely transcends the limited “library” and knowledge-repositories mission into which classical information science was cajoled during past decades. Paraphrasing the Spanish philosopher J. Ortega y Gasset, the overhaul of information science itself becomes “the challenge of our time”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from FIS 2013 Moscow)
Open AccessArticle Multivariable PID Decoupling Control Method of Electroslag Remelting Process Based on Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Algorithm
Information 2014, 5(1), 120-133; doi:10.3390/info5010120
Received: 11 January 2014 / Revised: 1 February 2014 / Accepted: 7 February 2014 / Published: 18 February 2014
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Abstract
A mathematical model of electroslag remelting (ESR) process is established based on its technical features and dynamic characteristics. A new multivariable self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller tuned optimally by an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm is proposed to control the two-input/two-output (TITO) [...] Read more.
A mathematical model of electroslag remelting (ESR) process is established based on its technical features and dynamic characteristics. A new multivariable self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller tuned optimally by an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm is proposed to control the two-input/two-output (TITO) ESR process. An adaptive chaotic migration mutation operator is used to tackle the particles trapped in the clustering field in order to enhance the diversity of the particles in the population, prevent premature convergence and improve the search efficiency of PSO algorithm. The simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control method. The new method can overcome dynamic working conditions and coupling features of the system in a wide range, and it has strong robustness and adaptability. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Information: A Personal Synthesis
Information 2014, 5(1), 134-170; doi:10.3390/info5010134
Received: 16 December 2013 / Revised: 9 February 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article is an attempt to capture, in a reasonable space, some of the major developments and currents of thought in information theory and the relations between them. I have particularly tried to include changes in the views of key authors in [...] Read more.
This article is an attempt to capture, in a reasonable space, some of the major developments and currents of thought in information theory and the relations between them. I have particularly tried to include changes in the views of key authors in the field. The domains addressed range from mathematical-categorial, philosophical and computational approaches to systems, causal-compositional, biological and religious approaches and messaging theory. I have related key concepts in each domain to my non-standard extension of logic to real processes that I call Logic in Reality (LIR). The result is not another attempt at a General Theory of Information such as that of Burgin, or a Unified Theory of Information like that of Hofkirchner. It is not a compendium of papers presented at a conference, more or less unified around a particular theme. It is rather a highly personal, limited synthesis which nonetheless may facilitate comparison of insights, including contradictory ones, from different lines of inquiry. As such, it may be an example of the concept proposed by Marijuan, still little developed, of the recombination of knowledge. Like the best of the work to which it refers, the finality of this synthesis is the possible contribution that an improved understanding of the nature and dynamics of information may make to the ethical development of the information society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers-2013)
Open AccessArticle Equivalence of the Symbol Grounding and Quantum System Identification Problems
Information 2014, 5(1), 172-189; doi:10.3390/info5010172
Received: 13 November 2013 / Revised: 4 December 2013 / Accepted: 26 February 2014 / Published: 27 February 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The symbol grounding problem is the problem of specifying a semantics for the representations employed by a physical symbol system in a way that is neither circular nor regressive. The quantum system identification problem is the problem of relating observational outcomes to [...] Read more.
The symbol grounding problem is the problem of specifying a semantics for the representations employed by a physical symbol system in a way that is neither circular nor regressive. The quantum system identification problem is the problem of relating observational outcomes to specific collections of physical degrees of freedom, i.e., to specific Hilbert spaces. It is shown that with reasonable physical assumptions these problems are equivalent. As the quantum system identification problem is demonstrably unsolvable by finite means, the symbol grounding problem is similarly unsolvable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics of Information)
Open AccessArticle Quantum States as Ordinary Information
Information 2014, 5(1), 190-208; doi:10.3390/info5010190
Received: 21 January 2014 / Revised: 5 March 2014 / Accepted: 6 March 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite various parallels between quantum states and ordinary information, quantum no-go-theorems have convinced many that there is no realistic framework that might underly quantum theory, no reality that quantum states can represent knowledge about. This paper develops the case that there is [...] Read more.
Despite various parallels between quantum states and ordinary information, quantum no-go-theorems have convinced many that there is no realistic framework that might underly quantum theory, no reality that quantum states can represent knowledge about. This paper develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time). By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed “all-at-once” (as in classical action principles). From this perspective, traditional quantum states would represent incomplete information about possible spacetime histories, conditional on the future measurement geometry. Without dynamical laws imposing additional restrictions, those histories can have a classical probability distribution, where exactly one history can be said to represent an underlying reality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics of Information)
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