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Expert System for Bomb Factory Detection by Networks of Advance Sensors
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Challenges 2017, 8(1), 10; doi:10.3390/challe8010010

Electrochemical Sensor for Explosives Precursors’ Detection in Water

1
Equipe Génie Enzymatique, Membranes Biomimétiques et Assemblages Supramoléculaires, Univ Lyon, Université Lyon1, 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne, France
2
Institut de Police Scientifique (IPS), Université de Lausanne, Dorigny, 1004 Lausanne, Switzerland
3
Legal Medicine Section-SAIMLAL Department, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena, 336, 00161 Roma, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Palmiro Poltronieri
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in New Technologies for Security)
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Abstract

Although all countries are intensifying their efforts against terrorism and increasing their mutual cooperation, terrorist bombing is still one of the greatest threats to society. The discovery of hidden bomb factories is of primary importance in the prevention of terrorism activities. Criminals preparing improvised explosives (IE) use chemical substances called precursors. These compounds are released in the air and in the waste water during IE production. Tracking sources of precursors by analyzing air or wastewater can then be an important clue for bomb factories’ localization. We are reporting here a new multiplex electrochemical sensor dedicated to the on-site simultaneous detection of three explosive precursors, potentially used for improvised explosive device preparation (hereafter referenced as B01, B08, and B15, for security disclosure reasons and to avoid being detrimental to the security of the counter-explosive EU action). The electrochemical sensors were designed to be disposable and to combine ease of use and portability in a screen-printed eight-electrochemical cell array format. The working electrodes were modified with different electrodeposited metals: gold, palladium, and platinum. These different coatings giving selectivity to the multi-sensor through a “fingerprint”-like signal subsequently analyzed using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Results are given regarding the detection of the three compounds in a real environment and in the presence of potentially interfering species. View Full-Text
Keywords: bomb factory; electrochemical array; explosive precursors; improvised explosives; partial least squares-discriminant analysis bomb factory; electrochemical array; explosive precursors; improvised explosives; partial least squares-discriminant analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Desmet, C.; Degiuli, A.; Ferrari, C.; Romolo, F.S.; Blum, L.; Marquette, C. Electrochemical Sensor for Explosives Precursors’ Detection in Water. Challenges 2017, 8, 10.

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