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Religions 2017, 8(9), 179;

Presenting a 4-Item Spiritual Well-Being Index (4-ISWBI)

Faculty of Education and Arts, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, VIC 3350, Australia
Department of International Education & Lifelong learning, Education University of Hong Kong, Tai Po 4600-652, Hong Kong
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Spiritual well-being is perceived to be reflected in the quality of relationships that people have in four areas, namely with God, others, nature, and self. Many spiritual well-being questionnaires exist, but not many provide an adequate assessment of these four relationships. As part of a survey of parental perceptions of holistic early childhood education in kindergartens in Hong Kong, 1383 parents and 165 teachers, from 22 kindergartens, completed a written survey questionnaire which helped to investigate the potential for a single question with four parts to provide a valid and reliable measure for spiritual well-being. Face, content, and construct validity were confirmed, together with Cronbach’s alpha providing a test for reliability. Similarity of findings from regression analysis of items in the 4-ISWBI with domains of spiritual well-being in the 20-item SHALOM, as well as partial discrimination by gender, reinforce the validity of the 4-ISWBI as a sound indicator of spiritual well-being and its four domains. In brief, the 4-Item Spiritual Well-Being Index (4-ISWBI) promises to be a handy instrument to aid researchers looking for a convenient, concise, coherent indicator, but not an exhaustive measure, of spiritual well-being. View Full-Text
Keywords: assess; spiritual well-being; SHALOM assess; spiritual well-being; SHALOM
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Fisher, J.; Ng, D. Presenting a 4-Item Spiritual Well-Being Index (4-ISWBI). Religions 2017, 8, 179.

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