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Measuring Religiosity/Spirituality: Theoretical Differentiations and Categorization of Instruments
The Protestant University of Applied Sciences Rhineland-Westphalia-Lippe, Immanuel-Kant-Str. 18-20, D-44803 Bochum, Germany
Center for the Interdisciplinary Research on Religion and Society (CIRRuS), Faculty for History, Philosophy, and Theology, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany
Center of Integrative Medicine, University Witten/Herdecke, Gerhard-Kienle-Weg 4, D-58313 Herdecke, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2011; in revised form: 17 July 2011 / Accepted: 9 August 2011 / Published: 11 August 2011
Abstract: There is a multitude of instruments for measuring religiosity/spirituality. Many of these questionnaires are used or even were developed in the context of studies about the connection between religiosity/spirituality and health. Thus, it seems crucial to note that measures can focus on quite different components along a hypothetical path between stressors and health. We present an instructive model which helps to identify these different components and allows the categorization of instruments of religiosity/spirituality according to their primary measurement intention: intensity/centrality, resources, needs, coping, and quality of life/well-being. Furthermore, we point out possibilities as to how religiosity and spirituality can be differentiated. We argue that the distinction between religiosity and spirituality is important in countries with a more secular background where a growing number of people identify themselves as “spiritual, but not religious”.
Keywords: religiosity; spirituality; questionnaires; categorization
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Zwingmann, C.; Klein, C.; Büssing, A. Measuring Religiosity/Spirituality: Theoretical Differentiations and Categorization of Instruments. Religions 2011, 2, 345-357.
Zwingmann C, Klein C, Büssing A. Measuring Religiosity/Spirituality: Theoretical Differentiations and Categorization of Instruments. Religions. 2011; 2(3):345-357.
Zwingmann, Christian; Klein, Constantin; Büssing, Arndt. 2011. "Measuring Religiosity/Spirituality: Theoretical Differentiations and Categorization of Instruments." Religions 2, no. 3: 345-357.