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Religions 2011, 2(3), 345-357; doi:10.3390/rel2030345
Article

Measuring Religiosity/Spirituality: Theoretical Differentiations and Categorization of Instruments

1,* , 2
 and 3
Received: 29 June 2011; in revised form: 17 July 2011 / Accepted: 9 August 2011 / Published: 11 August 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity)
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Abstract: There is a multitude of instruments for measuring religiosity/spirituality. Many of these questionnaires are used or even were developed in the context of studies about the connection between religiosity/spirituality and health. Thus, it seems crucial to note that measures can focus on quite different components along a hypothetical path between stressors and health. We present an instructive model which helps to identify these different components and allows the categorization of instruments of religiosity/spirituality according to their primary measurement intention: intensity/centrality, resources, needs, coping, and quality of life/well-being. Furthermore, we point out possibilities as to how religiosity and spirituality can be differentiated. We argue that the distinction between religiosity and spirituality is important in countries with a more secular background where a growing number of people identify themselves as “spiritual, but not religious”.
Keywords: religiosity; spirituality; questionnaires; categorization religiosity; spirituality; questionnaires; categorization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zwingmann, C.; Klein, C.; Büssing, A. Measuring Religiosity/Spirituality: Theoretical Differentiations and Categorization of Instruments. Religions 2011, 2, 345-357.

AMA Style

Zwingmann C, Klein C, Büssing A. Measuring Religiosity/Spirituality: Theoretical Differentiations and Categorization of Instruments. Religions. 2011; 2(3):345-357.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zwingmann, Christian; Klein, Constantin; Büssing, Arndt. 2011. "Measuring Religiosity/Spirituality: Theoretical Differentiations and Categorization of Instruments." Religions 2, no. 3: 345-357.


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