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J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6030092

Optimized Reliability Based Upgrading of Rubble Mound Breakwaters in a Changing Climate

Division of Hydraulics and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
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Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change, Coasts and Coastal Risk)
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Abstract

The present work aims at presenting an approach on implementing appropriate mitigation measures for the upgrade of rubble mound breakwaters protecting harbors and/or marinas against increasing future marine hazards and related escalating exposure to downtime risks. This approach is based on the reliability analysis of the studied structure coupled with economic optimization techniques. It includes the construction of probability distribution functions for all the stochastic variables of the marine climate (waves, storm surges, and sea level rise) for present and future conditions, the suggestion of different mitigation options for upgrading, the construction of a fault tree providing a logical succession of all events that lead to port downtime for each alternative mitigation option, and conclusively, the testing of a large number of possible alternative geometries for each option. A single solution is selected from the total sample of acceptable geometries for each upgrading concept that satisfy a probabilistic constraint in order to minimize the total costs of protection. The upgrading options considered in the present work include the construction or enhancement of a crown wall on the breakwater crest, the addition of the third layer of rocks above the primary armor layer of the breakwater (combined with crest elements), the attachment of a berm on the primary armor layer, and the construction of a detached low-crested structure in front of the breakwater. The proposed methodology is applied to an indicative rubble mound breakwater with an existing superstructure. The construction of a berm on the existing primary armor layer of the studied breakwater (port of Deauville, France), seems to be advantageous in terms of optimized total costs compared to other mitigation options. View Full-Text
Keywords: reliability; economic optimization; coastal structure; upgrading; rubble mound breakwater; climate change; extreme value theory reliability; economic optimization; coastal structure; upgrading; rubble mound breakwater; climate change; extreme value theory
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Galiatsatou, P.; Makris, C.; Prinos, P. Optimized Reliability Based Upgrading of Rubble Mound Breakwaters in a Changing Climate. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6, 92.

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