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J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(1), 28; doi:10.3390/jmse4010028

Life under Climate Change Scenarios: Sea Urchins’ Cellular Mechanisms for Reproductive Success

Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar-und Meeresforschung, Am Handelshafen 12, Bremerhaven 27570, Germany
Academic Editor: Magnus Wahlberg
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 11 March 2016 / Published: 21 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Acidification and Marine Biodiversity)
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Abstract

Ocean Acidification (OA) represents a major field of research and increased efforts are being made to elucidate its repercussions on biota. Species survival is ensured by successful reproduction, which may be threatened under detrimental environmental conditions, such as OA acting in synergy with other climate change related stressors. Achieving successful gametogenesis, fertilization, and the development of larvae into healthy juveniles and adults is crucial for the perpetuation of species and, thus, ecosystems’ functionality. The considerable vulnerability of the abovementioned developmental stages to the adverse conditions that future OA may impose has been shown in many species, including sea urchins which are commonly used due to the feasibility of their maintenance in captivity and the great amount of gametes that a mature adult is able to produce. In the present review, the latest knowledge about the impact of OA on various stages of the life cycle of sea urchins is summarized with remarks on the possible impact of other stressors. The cellular physiology of the gametes before, at fertilization and, at early development, is extensively described with a focus on the complex enzymatic machinery and the intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca2+ homeostasis for their vulnerability when facing adverse conditions such as acidification, temperature variations, or hypoxia. View Full-Text
Keywords: fertilization; cytoskeleton; cellular division; sea urchin; Ocean Acidification fertilization; cytoskeleton; cellular division; sea urchin; Ocean Acidification
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bögner, D. Life under Climate Change Scenarios: Sea Urchins’ Cellular Mechanisms for Reproductive Success. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4, 28.

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