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J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(4), 1244-1259; doi:10.3390/jmse3041244

Bitumen on Water: Charred Hay as a PFD (Petroleum Flotation Device)

1
Atlantic Centre for Green Chemistry, Departments of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3, Canada
2
Centre for Offshore Oil, Gas and Energy Research, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS B2Y 4A2, Canada
3
Department of Chemistry and Institute for Research in Materials, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4J3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Merv Fingas and Tony Clare
Received: 6 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 October 2015 / Published: 20 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oil Spills)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1254 KB, uploaded 20 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

Global demand for petroleum keeps increasing while traditional supplies decline. One alternative to the use of conventional crude oils is the utilization of Canadian bitumen. Raw bitumen is a dense, viscous, semi-liquid that is diluted with lighter crude oil to permit its transport through pipelines to terminals where it can then be shipped to global markets. When spilled, it naturally weathers to its original form and becomes dense enough to sink in aquatic systems. This severely limits oil spill recovery and remediation options. Here we report on the application of charred hay as a method for modifying the surface behavior of bitumen in aquatic environments. Waste or surplus hay is abundant in North America. Its surface can easily be modified through charring and/or chemical treatment. We have characterized the modified and charred hay using solid-state NMR, contact angle measurements and infrared spectroscopy. Tests of these materials to treat spilled bitumen in model aquatic systems have been undertaken. Our results indicate that bitumen spills on water will retain their buoyancy for longer periods after treatment with charred hay, or charred hay coated with calcium oxide, improving recovery options. View Full-Text
Keywords: petroleum; bitumen; dilbit; crude oil; asphaltene; remediation; spill; recovery; hay; flotation petroleum; bitumen; dilbit; crude oil; asphaltene; remediation; spill; recovery; hay; flotation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jahan, N.; Fawcett, J.; King, T.L.; McPherson, A.M.; Robertson, K.N.; Werner-Zwanziger, U.; Clyburne, J.A.C. Bitumen on Water: Charred Hay as a PFD (Petroleum Flotation Device). J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3, 1244-1259.

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