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J. Mar. Sci. Eng., Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2013), Pages 1-20

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial A New Open Access Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2013, 1(1), 1-2; doi:10.3390/jmse1010001
Received: 14 March 2013 / Accepted: 18 March 2013 / Published: 27 March 2013
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Abstract
The oceans cover approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface and contain more than 97% of the planet’s water, representing over 100 times more liveable volume than the terrestrial habitat. Approximately fifty percent of the species on the planet occupy this ocean biome, [...] Read more.
The oceans cover approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface and contain more than 97% of the planet’s water, representing over 100 times more liveable volume than the terrestrial habitat. Approximately fifty percent of the species on the planet occupy this ocean biome, much of which remains unexplored. The health and sustainability of the oceans are threatened by a combination of pressures associated with climate change and the ever-increasing demands we place on them for food, recreation, trade, energy and minerals. The biggest threat, however, is the pace of change to the oceans, e.g., ocean acidification, which is unprecedented in human history. Consequently, there has never been a greater need for the rapid and widespread dissemination of the outcomes of research aimed at improving our understanding of how the oceans work and solutions to their sustainable use. It is our hope that this new online, open-access Journal of Marine Science and Engineering will go some way to fulfilling this need. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Measurement of Diurnal Body Tilt Angle Distributions of Threeline Grunt Parapristipoma trilineatum Using Micro-Acceleration Data Loggers
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2013, 1(1), 3-9; doi:10.3390/jmse1010003
Received: 29 May 2013 / Revised: 28 June 2013 / Accepted: 4 July 2013 / Published: 15 July 2013
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Abstract
The body tilt angle of a fish has a large effect on the acoustic target strength. For an accurate estimation of fish abundance using acoustic methods, it is necessary to measure body tilt angles in free-ranging fish. We measured diurnal body tilt [...] Read more.
The body tilt angle of a fish has a large effect on the acoustic target strength. For an accurate estimation of fish abundance using acoustic methods, it is necessary to measure body tilt angles in free-ranging fish. We measured diurnal body tilt angle distributions of threeline grunt (Parapristipoma trilineatum) while swimming in schools in a fish cage. Micro-acceleration data loggers were used to record (for 3 days) swaying and surging accelerations (at 16 Hz intervals) of 10 individuals among 20 forming a school in a fish cage. Time series analysis of 1-h mean body tilt angles revealed significant differences in body tilt angles between day (−7.9 ± 3.28°) and night (0.8 ± 5.89°), which must be taken into account when conducting acoustic surveys. These results will be useful for calculating the average dorsal aspect target strength (TS) of threeline grunt for accurate estimations of fish abundance. Full article

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview Detection of Oil in Ice and Snow
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2013, 1(1), 10-20; doi:10.3390/jmse1010010
Received: 23 October 2013 / Revised: 7 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 22 November 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The response to a major oil spill can be challenging in temperate climates and with good weather conditions. By contrast, a major spill in or under ice and snow, presents a whole new series of challenges. This paper reviews detection technologies for [...] Read more.
The response to a major oil spill can be challenging in temperate climates and with good weather conditions. By contrast, a major spill in or under ice and snow, presents a whole new series of challenges. This paper reviews detection technologies for these challenging situations. A number of acoustic techniques have been tried in test tank situations and it was found that acoustic detection of oil was possible because oil behaves as a solid in acoustic terms and transmits shear waves. Laboratory tests have been carried out and a prototype was built and tested in the field. Radio frequency methods, such as ground penetrating radar (GPR), have been tested for both oil-under-ice and oil-under-snow. The GPR method does not provide sufficient discrimination for positive oil detection in actual spills. Preliminary tests on the use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for detecting oil, in and under ice, shows promise and further work on this is being done at this time. A number of other oil-in-ice detection technologies have been tried and evaluated, including standard acoustic thickness probes, fluorosensor techniques, and augmented infrared detection. Each of these showed potential in theory during tank tests. Further testing on these proposed methods is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies for Oil Detection and Remediation in the Arctic Ocean)

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