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Agriculture 2017, 7(5), 39; doi:10.3390/agriculture7050039

Changes in the Nitrogen Budget and Soil Nitrogen in a Field with Paddy–Upland Rotation with Different Histories of Manure Application

1
Faculty of Bioresource Sciences, Akita Prefectural University, 241-438 Aza Kaidobata-Nishi, Shimoshinjo Nakano, Akita 010-0195, Japan
2
Akita Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station, 34-1, Aza Genpachizawa, Yuwa Aikawa, Akita 010-1231, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ryusuke Hatano
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agroecosystem)
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Abstract

In northern Japan, declines in soil nitrogen fertility have occurred in paddy–upland rotation systems with soybean cultivation. A six-year lysimeter experiment was conducted to evaluate the nitrogen budget in paddy–upland rotation (three-year for upland soybean, then three-year for flooded paddy rice) and to clarify the effect of preceding compost application (immature or mature compost over four consecutive years of forage rice cultivation) on the nitrogen budget and soil nitrogen fertility. Available soil nitrogen throughout the experimental period and soybean and rice yields in both compost application plots tended to be higher than those in the control plot. The nitrogen budgets during both soybean and rice cultivation were negative, and the amount of nitrogen loss in both compost application plots tended to be higher than that in the control plot. The nitrogen loss during rice cultivation (−2.3 to −4.3 g N m−2 year−1) was less than that during soybean cultivation (−9.6 to −14.6 g N m−2 year−1). Nitrogen loss estimated based on the nitrogen budget agreed well with that estimated based on changes in soil nitrogen storage during soybean cultivation but not during rice cultivation, suggesting underestimation of nitrogen loss from the rice paddy. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitrogen budget; paddy–upland rotation; preceding compost application; flooded paddy rice; upland soybean nitrogen budget; paddy–upland rotation; preceding compost application; flooded paddy rice; upland soybean
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Takakai, F.; Kikuchi, T.; Sato, T.; Takeda, M.; Sato, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Kon, K.; Sato, T.; Kaneta, Y. Changes in the Nitrogen Budget and Soil Nitrogen in a Field with Paddy–Upland Rotation with Different Histories of Manure Application. Agriculture 2017, 7, 39.

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