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Agriculture 2017, 7(3), 28; doi:10.3390/agriculture7030028

Evaluation of Pectin Extraction Conditions and Polyphenol Profile from Citrus x lantifolia Waste: Potential Application as Functional Ingredients

1
Centro de Investigación y Asistencia en Tecnología y Diseño del Estado de Jalisco CIATEJ Unidad Sureste. Parque Científico Tecnológico de Yucatán, Km 5.5 Carretera Sierra Papacal-Chuburná puerto, Mérida-CP 97302, México
2
Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional. Unidad Mérida Km. 6 Antigua carretera a Progreso Apdo. Postal 73, Cordemex, Mérida Yuc. 97310, México
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Johnselvakumar Lawrence and Karunanithy Chinnadurai
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Processing Technologies for Agricultural Products)
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Abstract

The citrus by-products pectin and polyphenols were obtained from Citrus x lantifolia residues. The use of acid type, solute-solvent ratio, temperature, and extraction time on pectin yield recovery was evaluated using a factorial design 34; pectin physicochemical characterization, polyphenol profile, and antioxidant activity were also determined. Results indicated a total polyphenol content of 3.92 ± 0.06 mg Galic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/g of citrus waste flour in dry basis (DB), with antioxidant activity of 74%. The presence of neohesperidin (0.96 ± 0.09 mg/g of citrus flour DB), hesperidin (0.27 ± 0.0 mg/g of citrus flour DB), and ellagic acid (0.18 ± 0.03 mg/g of citrus flour DB) as major polyphenols was observed. All of the factors evaluated in pectin recovery presented significant effects (p < 0.05), nevertheless the acid type and solute-solvent ratio showed the greatest effect. The highest yield of pectin recovery (36%) was obtained at 90 °C for 90 min, at a ratio of 1:80 (w/v) using citric acid. The evaluation of pectin used as a food ingredient in cookies elaboration, resulted in a reduction of 10% of fat material without significant texture differences (p < 0.05). The pectin extraction conditions and characterization from these residues allowed us to determine the future applications of these materials for use in several commercial applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrus polyphenols; citrus pectin; Citrus x lantifolia; pectin extraction conditions citrus polyphenols; citrus pectin; Citrus x lantifolia; pectin extraction conditions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ayora-Talavera, T.R.; Ramos-Chan, C.A.; Covarrubias-Cárdenas, A.G.; Sánchez-Contreras, A.; García-Cruz, U.; Pacheco L., N.A. Evaluation of Pectin Extraction Conditions and Polyphenol Profile from Citrus x lantifolia Waste: Potential Application as Functional Ingredients. Agriculture 2017, 7, 28.

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