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Agriculture 2015, 5(3), 826-856; doi:10.3390/agriculture5030826

Organic Cultivation of Tomato in India with Recycled Slaughterhouse Wastes: Evaluation of Fertilizer and Fruit Safety

1
School of Environmental Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, India
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, India
3
Peerless Hospital and B K Roy Research Center, Kolkata 700094, India
4
Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, India
5
Department of Civil Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stephen R. Smith
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 28 August 2015 / Accepted: 6 September 2015 / Published: 16 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling Organic Wastes in Agriculture)
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Abstract

Environmental and health safety of recycled slaughterhouse wastes-derived fertilizer and the produce obtained through its application is not well understood. Waste bovine blood and rumen digesta were mixed, cooked and sun-dried to obtain bovine-blood-and-rumen-digesta-mixture (BBRDM, NPK 30.36:1:5.75). 1.26 ± 0.18 log CFU mL−1 fecal coliforms were recovered in BBRDM. E. coli O157:H7, Mycobacteria, Clostridium sp., Salmonella sp., Bacillus sp. and Brucella sp. were absent. No re-growth of pathogens was observed after 60 days storage in sealed bags and in the open. However, prions and viruses were not evaluated. Heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, As, Ni, Mn) concentrations in BBRDM were within internationally permissible limits. BBRDM was applied for field cultivation of tomato during 2012–2013 and 2013–2014. Lycopene and nitrate contents of BBRDM-grown tomatoes were higher than Diammonium phosphate (DAP) + potash-grown tomatoes because BBRDM supplied 2.5 times more the amount of nitrogen than DAP (NPK 18:46:0) + potash (NPK 0:0:44). Heavy metals and nitrate/nitrite concentrations in tomatoes were within internationally acceptable limits. BBRDM-grown tomatoes showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Sub-acute toxicity tests on Wistar rats fed with BBRDM-grown tomatoes did not show adverse clinical picture. Thus, no immediate environmental or health risks associated with BBRDM and the tomatoes produced were identified. View Full-Text
Keywords: Slaughterhouse; organic fertilizer; tomato; pathogen; lycopene; heavy metal; nitrate; nitrite; mutagen; sub-acute toxicity Slaughterhouse; organic fertilizer; tomato; pathogen; lycopene; heavy metal; nitrate; nitrite; mutagen; sub-acute toxicity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Roy, M.; Das, R.; Kundu, A.; Karmakar, S.; Das, S.; Sen, P.K.; Debsarcar, A.; Mukherjee, J. Organic Cultivation of Tomato in India with Recycled Slaughterhouse Wastes: Evaluation of Fertilizer and Fruit Safety. Agriculture 2015, 5, 826-856.

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