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J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(8), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7080209

Salivary Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

1
Department of Physiology, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, 2c Mickiewicza Street, 15-233 Bialystok, Poland
2
Department of Pedodontics, Medical University of Bialystok, 24a M. Sklodowskiej-Curie Street, 15-274 Bialystok, Poland
3
Students’ Scientific Group “Stomatological Biochemistry”, Department of Conservative Dentistry, Medical University of Bialystok, 24a M. Sklodowskiej-Curie Street, 15-274 Bialystok, Poland
4
Department of Pediatrics and Nephrology, Medical University of Bialystok, 24a M. Sklodowskiej-Curie Street, 15-274 Bialystok, Poland
5
Department of Conservative Dentistry, Medical University of Bialystok, 24a M. Sklodowskiej-Curie Street, 15-274 Bialystok, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract

There are still missing non-invasive biomarkers of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate oxidative stress indicators in the non-stimulated (NWS) and stimulated saliva (SWS) of CKD children (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 25). Salivary antioxidants (catalase (CAT), peroxidase (Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), uric acid (UA), reduced glutathione (GSH), albumin), redox status (total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI)), and oxidative damage products (advanced glycation end products (AGE), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA)) were evaluated. We have demonstrated the significantly higher activity of SWS GPx and SOD, as well as elevated concentrations of UA and albumin in NWS and SWS of CKD children vs. the control group. TAC, TOS and OSI were significantly higher only in SWS, while oxidative damage products (AGE, AOPP and MDA) were significantly higher in both NWS and SWS of CKD children. ROC analysis showed a considerably high diagnostic value of AOPP in both NWS and SWS of CKD children compared to controls (AUC = 0.92; 0.98). CKD is responsible for disturbances in salivary antioxidant systems and oxidative damage to proteins and lipids. Salivary AOPP can be a potential biomarker of CKD in children. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic kidney disease; salivary biomarkers; oxidative stress; oxidative damage chronic kidney disease; salivary biomarkers; oxidative stress; oxidative damage
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Maciejczyk, M.; Szulimowska, J.; Skutnik, A.; Taranta-Janusz, K.; Wasilewska, A.; Wiśniewska, N.; Zalewska, A. Salivary Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 209.

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