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J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(9), 87; doi:10.3390/jcm6090087

Technical Advances in the Measurement of Residual Disease in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Myeloid Malignances Section, Hematology Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marco Ladetto
Received: 22 August 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Minimal Residual Disease Assessment in Hematological Cancers)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [427 KB, uploaded 19 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

Outcomes for those diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain poor. It has been widely established that persistent residual leukemic burden, often referred to as measurable or minimal residual disease (MRD), after induction therapy or at the time of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is highly predictive for adverse clinical outcomes and can be used to identify patients likely to experience clinically evident relapse. As a result of inherent genetic and molecular heterogeneity in AML, there is no uniform method or protocol for MRD measurement to encompass all cases. Several techniques focusing on identifying recurrent molecular and cytogenetic aberrations or leukemia-associated immunophenotypes have been described, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. Modern technologies enabling the digital quantification and tracking of individual DNA or RNA molecules, next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms, and high-resolution imaging capabilities are among several new avenues under development to supplement or replace the current standard of flow cytometry. In this review, we outline emerging modalities positioned to enhance MRD detection and discuss factors surrounding their integration into clinical practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; minimal residual disease; next-generation sequencing; error-corrected sequencing; droplet digital polymerase chain reaction; imaging acute myeloid leukemia; minimal residual disease; next-generation sequencing; error-corrected sequencing; droplet digital polymerase chain reaction; imaging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Roloff, G.W.; Lai, C.; Hourigan, C.S.; Dillon, L.W. Technical Advances in the Measurement of Residual Disease in Acute Myeloid Leukemia. J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6, 87.

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