Next Article in Journal
Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids for the Treatment of IgA Nephropathy
Next Article in Special Issue
Statins, Muscle Disease and Mitochondria
Previous Article in Journal
An Evaluation of Ischaemic Preconditioning as a Method of Reducing Ischaemia Reperfusion Injury in Liver Surgery and Transplantation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Myopathology of Adult and Paediatric Mitochondrial Diseases
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(7), 71; doi:10.3390/jcm6070071

Evidence of Oxidative Stress and Secondary Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Metabolic and Non-Metabolic Disorders

1
The Mark Holland Metabolic Unit Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust Stott Lane, Salford M6 8HD, UK
2
School of Pharmacy, Liverpool John Moore University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2384 KB, uploaded 21 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases and conditions. Oxidative stress occurs once the antioxidant defenses of the body become overwhelmed and are no longer able to detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS can then go unchallenged and are able to cause oxidative damage to cellular lipids, DNA and proteins, which will eventually result in cellular and organ dysfunction. Although not always the primary cause of disease, mitochondrial dysfunction as a secondary consequence disease of pathophysiology can result in increased ROS generation together with an impairment in cellular energy status. Mitochondrial dysfunction may result from either free radical-induced oxidative damage or direct impairment by the toxic metabolites which accumulate in certain metabolic diseases. In view of the importance of cellular antioxidant status, a number of therapeutic strategies have been employed in disorders associated with oxidative stress with a view to neutralising the ROS and reactive nitrogen species implicated in disease pathophysiology. Although successful in some cases, these adjunct therapies have yet to be incorporated into the clinical management of patients. The purpose of this review is to highlight the emerging evidence of oxidative stress, secondary mitochondrial dysfunction and antioxidant treatment efficacy in metabolic and non-metabolic diseases in which there is a current interest in these parameters. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitochondria; electron transport chain; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species; oxidative stress; phenylketonuria; methylmalonic acidemia; methylmalonic acid; peroxisome; glutathione; catalase; superoxide dismutase; coenzyme Q10; sepsis; nitrosative stress; nitric oxide synthase mitochondria; electron transport chain; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species; oxidative stress; phenylketonuria; methylmalonic acidemia; methylmalonic acid; peroxisome; glutathione; catalase; superoxide dismutase; coenzyme Q10; sepsis; nitrosative stress; nitric oxide synthase
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Stepien, K.M.; Heaton, R.; Rankin, S.; Murphy, A.; Bentley, J.; Sexton, D.; Hargreaves, I.P. Evidence of Oxidative Stress and Secondary Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Metabolic and Non-Metabolic Disorders. J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6, 71.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top