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J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(3), 23; doi:10.3390/jcm6030023

Role of Protein Phosphatase 2A in Osteoblast Differentiation and Function

1
Department of Histology and Oral Histology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, 3-18-15, Kuramoto, Tokushima 770-8504, Japan
2
Department of Oral healthcare educations, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, 3-18-15, Kuramoto, Tokushima 770-8504, Japan
3
Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1, Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 807-8555, Japan
4
Department of Veterinary Nursing and Technology, School of Veterinary Science, Nippon Veterinary Nursing and Life Science University, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Emanuel F. Petricoin
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 22 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Cell Biology and Transcriptional Regulation)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [848 KB, uploaded 23 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

The reversible phosphorylation of proteins plays hugely important roles in a variety of cellular processes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. These processes are strictly controlled by protein kinases (phosphorylation) and phosphatases (de-phosphorylation). Here we provide a brief history of the study of protein phosphorylation, including a summary of different types of protein kinases and phosphatases. One of the most physiologically important serine/threonine phosphatases is PP2A. This review provides a description of the phenotypes of various PP2A transgenic mice and further focuses on the known functions of PP2A in bone formation, including its role in osteoblast differentiation and function. A reduction in PP2A promotes bone formation and osteoblast differentiation through the regulation of bone-related transcription factors such as Osterix. Interestingly, downregulation of PP2A also stimulates adipocyte differentiation from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells under the appropriate adipogenic differentiation conditions. In osteoblasts, PP2A is also involved in the ability to control osteoclastogenesis as well as in the proliferation and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells. Thus, PP2A is considered to be a comprehensive factor in controlling the differentiation and function of cells derived from mesenchymal cells such as osteoblasts and adipocytes. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein phosphatase; bone formation; osteoblast differentiation; osteosarcoma cells; osteoclastogenesis; adipogenesis protein phosphatase; bone formation; osteoblast differentiation; osteosarcoma cells; osteoclastogenesis; adipogenesis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Okamura, H.; Yoshida, K.; Morimoto, H.; Teramachi, J.; Ochiai, K.; Haneji, T.; Yamamoto, A. Role of Protein Phosphatase 2A in Osteoblast Differentiation and Function. J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6, 23.

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