Next Article in Journal
Modulation of Vascular ACE by Oxidative Stress in Young Syrian Cardiomyopathic Hamsters: Therapeutic Implications
Previous Article in Journal
Mechanisms of TGFβ-Induced Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(7), 62; doi:10.3390/jcm5070062

Heart Failure: Diagnosis, Management and Utilization

1
John Theurer Cancer Center, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ 07601, USA
2
Ansicht Scidel Inc., Edison, NJ 08837, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Salvatore De Rosa
Received: 10 March 2016 / Revised: 28 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 29 June 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [736 KB, uploaded 29 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Despite the advancement in medicine, management of heart failure (HF), which usually presents as a disease syndrome, has been a challenge to healthcare providers. This is reflected by the relatively higher rate of readmissions along with increased mortality and morbidity associated with HF. In this review article, we first provide a general overview of types of HF pathogenesis and diagnostic features of HF including the crucial role of exercise in determining the severity of heart failure, the efficacy of therapeutic strategies and the morbidity/mortality of HF. We then discuss the quality control measures to prevent the growing readmission rates for HF. We also attempt to elucidate published and ongoing clinical trials for HF in an effort to evaluate the standard and novel therapeutic approaches, including stem cell and gene therapies, to reduce the morbidity and mortality. Finally, we discuss the appropriate utilization/documentation and medical coding based on the severity of the HF alone and with minor and major co-morbidities. We consider that this review provides an extensive overview of the HF in terms of disease pathophysiology, management and documentation for the general readers, as well as for the clinicians/physicians/hospitalists. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarker; heart failure; ICD 10; readmission; utilization biomarker; heart failure; ICD 10; readmission; utilization
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Inamdar, A.A.; Inamdar, A.C. Heart Failure: Diagnosis, Management and Utilization. J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5, 62.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top