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J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(1), 11; doi:10.3390/jcm5010011

Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and Regulation of EMT Factors by Steroid Nuclear Receptors in Breast Cancer: A Review and in Silico Investigation

1
Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Sault Area Hospital, Sault Ste Marie, ON P6B 0A8, Canada
2
Division of Clinical Sciences, Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Sudbury, QC P3E 2C6, Canada
Academic Editors: David A. Brenner, Tatiana Kisseleva and Jonas Fuxe
Received: 8 December 2015 / Revised: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 30 December 2015 / Published: 19 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1419 KB, uploaded 19 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

Steroid Nuclear Receptors (SNRs) are transcription factors of the nuclear receptor super-family. Estrogen Receptor (ERα) is the best-studied and has a seminal role in the clinic both as a prognostic marker but also as a predictor of response to anti-estrogenic therapies. Progesterone Receptor (PR) is also used in the clinic but with a more debatable prognostic role and the role of the four other SNRs, ERβ, Androgen Receptor (AR), Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) and Mineralocorticoid Receptor (MR), is starting only to be appreciated. ERα, but also to a certain degree the other SNRs, have been reported to be involved in virtually every cancer-enabling process, both promoting and impeding carcinogenesis. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and the reverse Mesenchymal Epithelial Transition (MET) are such carcinogenesis-enabling processes with important roles in invasion and metastasis initiation but also establishment of tumor in the metastatic site. EMT is governed by several signal transduction pathways culminating in core transcription factors of the process, such as Snail, Slug, ZEB1 and ZEB2, and Twist, among others. This paper will discuss direct regulation of these core transcription factors by SNRs in breast cancer. Interrogation of publicly available databases for binding sites of SNRs on promoters of core EMT factors will also be included in an attempt to fill gaps where other experimental data are not available. View Full-Text
Keywords: Steroid Nuclear Receptors; Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition; Mesenchymal Epithelial Transition; ERα; PR; AR; ERβ; GR; MR; breast cancer Steroid Nuclear Receptors; Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition; Mesenchymal Epithelial Transition; ERα; PR; AR; ERβ; GR; MR; breast cancer
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Voutsadakis, I.A. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and Regulation of EMT Factors by Steroid Nuclear Receptors in Breast Cancer: A Review and in Silico Investigation. J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5, 11.

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