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J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(2), 260-281; doi:10.3390/jcm4020260

HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

1
Medical School, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 6431 Fannin, Houston, TX 77030, USA
2
Center for Clinical Studies, 1401 Binz, Suite 200, Houston, TX 77004, USA
3
Medical School, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1401 Binz, Suite 200, Houston, TX 77004, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jane Grant-Kels
Received: 11 November 2014 / Revised: 13 December 2014 / Accepted: 19 December 2014 / Published: 29 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Advances of Human Papillomaviruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [156 KB, uploaded 29 January 2015]

Abstract

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. View Full-Text
Keywords: human papillomavirus (HPV); immunosuppression; human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV); carcinogenesis; vaccine; skin cancer human papillomavirus (HPV); immunosuppression; human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV); carcinogenesis; vaccine; skin cancer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Reusser, N.M.; Downing, C.; Guidry, J.; Tyring, S.K. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients. J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4, 260-281.

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