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J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(12), 1999-2011; doi:10.3390/jcm4121956

Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids

1
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe T4L 1W1, AB, Canada
2
Josera GmbH & Co. KG, Kleinheubach 63924, Germany
3
Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa
4
Prairie Swine Centre, Inc., Saskatoon S7H 3J8, SK, Canada
5
Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2R3, AB, Canada
6
Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3150, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lindsay Brown, Bernhard Rauch and Hemant Poudyal
Received: 3 November 2015 / Revised: 8 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [902 KB, uploaded 16 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. View Full-Text
Keywords: pig; pork; n-3; omega-3; LNA; ETA; EPA; DHA pig; pork; n-3; omega-3; LNA; ETA; EPA; DHA
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dugan, M.E.; Vahmani, P.; Turner, T.D.; Mapiye, C.; Juárez, M.; Prieto, N.; Beaulieu, A.D.; Zijlstra, R.T.; Patience, J.F.; Aalhus, J.L. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids. J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4, 1999-2011.

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