J. Clin. Med. 2014, 3(2), 388-415; doi:10.3390/jcm3020388

Review
Beyond Trisomy 21: Additional Chromosomal Anomalies Detected through Routine Aneuploidy Screening
Amy Metcalfe 1,*, Catriona Hippman 2,3, Melanie Pastuck 4 and Jo-Ann Johnson 5
1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of British Columbia, BC Women’s Hospital 4500 Oak St., Vancouver, BC V6H 3N1, Canada
2
Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; E-Mail: catriona.hippman@ubc.ca
3
Women’s Health Research Institute, BC Women’s Hospital, 4500 Oak St., Vancouver, BC V6H 3N1, Canada
4
Early Risk Assessment Program, Suite 100 3820 Hospital Dr NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada; E-Mail: melanie.pastuck@albertahealthservices.ca
5
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Foothills Medical Centre—North Tower, University of Calgary, 1403 29th St. NW, Calgary, AB T2N 2T9, Canada; E-Mail: joann.johnson@albertahealthservices.ca
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: ametcalfe@cfri.ca; Tel.: +1-604-875-2345 (ext. 5185).
Received: 13 January 2014; in revised form: 6 February 2014 / Accepted: 18 February 2014 /
Published: 8 April 2014

Abstract

: Prenatal screening is often misconstrued by patients as screening for trisomy 21 alone; however, other chromosomal anomalies are often detected. This study aimed to systematically review the literature and use diagnostic meta-analysis to derive pooled detection and false positive rates for aneuploidies other than trisomy 21 with different prenatal screening tests. Non-invasive prenatal testing had the highest detection (DR) and lowest false positive (FPR) rates for trisomy 13 (DR: 90.3%; FPR: 0.2%), trisomy 18 (DR: 98.1%; FPR: 0.2%), and 45,X (DR: 92.2%; FPR: 0.1%); however, most estimates came from high-risk samples. The first trimester combined test also had high DRs for all conditions studied (trisomy 13 DR: 83.1%; FPR: 4.4%; trisomy 18 DR: 91.9%; FPR: 3.5%; 45,X DR: 70.1%; FPR: 5.4%; triploidy DR: 100%; FPR: 6.3%). Second trimester triple screening had the lowest DRs and highest FPRs for all conditions (trisomy 13 DR: 43.9%; FPR: 8.1%; trisomy 18 DR: 70.5%; FPR: 3.3%; 45,X DR: 77.2%; FPR: 9.3%). Prenatal screening tests differ in their ability to accurately detect chromosomal anomalies. Patients should be counseled about the ability of prenatal screening to detect anomalies other than trisomy 21 prior to undergoing screening.
Keywords:
aneuploidy; prenatal; maternal serum; ultrasound; non-invasive testing; sensitivity; specificity

1. Introduction

Prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidy aims to identify women at increased risk of carrying a fetus with a chromosomal anomaly and limit the offer of invasive diagnostic tests (with their associated risk of miscarriage) to those women at high-risk. National practice guidelines currently recommend that all pregnant women be offered prenatal screening for aneuploidy [1,2]. Methods for prenatal screening have evolved rapidly in recent decades from screening based on maternal age alone, to serum screening, to a combination of maternal serum and ultrasound based measures, and most recently to isolated cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA) from maternal plasma [3,4,5].

Prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidy is most frequently discussed in terms of prenatal screening for trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) as this is the most common form of fetal aneuploidy and this condition has clinical implications for the health of the fetus [3,4]. However, counseling issues arise when anomalies are detected that were not discussed during the informed consent process, given that parents would be unprepared for such a result. Parents consistently report that they do not have enough information about prenatal screening, and may be surprised when they undergo a screening test for trisomy 21 only to find out that their fetus has another (and potentially more severe) anomaly [6,7,8,9]. A good understanding of prenatal screening, prior to accessing this test, is important, because if the results are positive, parents must make important and complex decisions about invasive testing which carries a small, but substantial risk of pregnancy loss, and potentially pregnancy termination [9,10]. Counseling about conditions other than trisomy 21 that may be detected through prenatal screening is complicated for a variety of reasons; the clinical implications of balanced chromosome rearrangements are not always known, the risk of specific anomalies is extremely low, and the reported detection rates and false positive rates for different anomalies vary widely in the literature [10]. This study aimed to systematically review the literature and use diagnostic meta-analysis to derive pooled detection and false positive rates for fetal aneuploidies other than trisomy 21 using standard prenatal screening tests. This information may be helpful to care providers as they discuss the relative strengths and limitations of different forms of prenatal screening with their patients.

2. Methods

2.1. Systematic Review

Relevant English-language literature was identified through a systemic search of Medline (1946–2013) and Embase (1974–2013) in November 2013. Reference lists of included articles were examined to identify additional relevant articles that may have been missed in the electronic search. The search terms included generic terms (prenatal diagnosis, antenatal diagnosis, prenatal screening, antenatal screening) as well as specific terms related to the screening test used (first trimester screening, aneuploidy screening, integrated screening, sequential screening, non-invasive prenatal testing, serum screening, combined screening, genetic screening, quad screen) or the chromosomal anomaly (Klinefelter syndrome, tetraploidy, translocation, triploidy, trisomy 13, trisomy 18, Turner syndrome). Truncation symbols were used to include all possible variations of the search term (i.e., screen, screening, screened).

Studies were eligible for inclusion if they provided the data necessary to calculate the number of true positives, false positives, false negatives and true negatives for a chromosomal anomaly other than trisomy 21 using a currently available prenatal screening test (see Table 1). Studies that exclusively used maternal serum alpha fetoprotein (MS-AFP) or a combination of MS-AFP and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) (double test) were deemed outdated and were not included in the review. Two reviewers (Amy Metcalfe, Catriona Hippman) independently reviewed all titles and abstracts for potential inclusion. Full-text review was undertaken for any article deemed potentially eligible by either reviewer. Data extraction and verification was performed by the same reviewers. Specific study elements extracted included: screening test used, detection rate, number of women screened, number of screen positive women, number of aneuploid fetuses, study location, and time period of data collection.

Table Table 1. Prenatal screening tests eligible for inclusion in systematic review.

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Table 1. Prenatal screening tests eligible for inclusion in systematic review.
Prenatal Screening TestBiochemical and Ultrasound Components
First Trimester Combined TestNT, PAPP-A, free β hCG
Second Trimester Triple ScreenAFP, hCG, uE3
Second Trimester Quadruple ScreenAFP, hCG, uE3, Inhibin A
Integrated/Sequential/Contingent Screen(NT, PAPP-A, free β hCG) + (AFP, hCG, uE3, Inhibin A)
Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT)cffDNA

AFP = alpha-fetoprotein; cffDNA = cell free fetal DNA; hCG = human chorionic gonadatrophin; NT = nuchal translucency; PAPP-A = pregnancy associated plasma protein A; uE3 = unconjugated estriol.

Guidelines for the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) [11] and Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) [12] were followed.

2.2. Diagnostic Meta-Analysis

The accuracy of prenatal screening tests is typically evaluated using both the detection rate (sensitivity) and the false positive rate (1-specificity). As these measures are correlated, a bivariate random effects model was used to derive pooled estimates and generate summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves [13]. Studies were weighted based on their total sample size, as large sample sizes allow for more precise estimates of sensitivity and specificity [14]. For a detailed description of the technical specifications of the model, readers are referred to [14]. A minimum of four studies were required to derive pooled detection and false positive rates. All analyses were conducting using Stata 12 SE (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX, USA).

3. Results

Sixty-five articles met all inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review (Figure 1). Trisomy 18 was the most common aneuploidy eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis for which literature was available, while the first trimester combined test was the most common prenatal screening test eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis for which literature was available (Figure 1). Detailed information on all included studies can be found in the Appendix A.

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Figure 1. Flow diagram of study selection.

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Figure 1. Flow diagram of study selection.
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3.1. Trisomy 13 (Patau Syndrome)

Overall, 31 studies reported data on trisomy 13, including 16 studies that utilized the first trimester combined test [15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30], 8 utilizing the second trimester triple screen [31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38], and 9 using non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) [39,40,41,42,43,44,45] (Table 2 and Appendix B). Two studies utilizing NIPT [39,45] included data on two patient groups (a training set and a validation set); hence were included as two distinct studies in the diagnostic meta-analysis.

Substantial variation was noted in the definition of a “screen positive” test for trisomy 13 using the first trimester combined test—definitions for specific risk levels for trisomy 13 included risks ≥1/200 [19], risks of trisomy 13 or 18 ≥1/150 [15,21] or 1/200 [25], or risks of trisomy 13, 18 or 21 ≥1/250 [24] or 1/300 [23,27]. No studies using the second trimester triple screen included a specific risk algorithm for trisomy 13; however, variation in the definition of “screen positive” for trisomy 21 or trisomy 21/trisomy 18 was observed. Studies differed in that some reported cut-off values based on the risk of trisomy 13 at the time of the test (either the first trimester or the second trimester) or at term; however, this only partially explains the differences observed in cut-off values.

NIPT exhibited the strongest overall test performance with a pooled detection rate of 90.3% and a false positive rate <1% (Table 2). The first trimester combined test had a significantly higher detection rate (83.1% vs. 43.9%) and a lower false positive rate (4.4% vs. 8.1%) than the second trimester triple screen, although statistical significance was not achieved for the false positive rate (p > 0.05) (Table 2).

Table Table 2. Pooled results for trisomy 13.

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Table 2. Pooled results for trisomy 13.
Study CharacteristicsPrenatal Screening Test
1st Trimester Combined Test2nd Trimester Triple ScreenNon-Invasive Prenatal Testing
Number of Studies1689
Number of Patients245,5021,276,8945840
Number of Cases18515686
Median prevalence per 10,000 pregnancies (25th–75th percentile range)5.1 (3.8–16.0)2.2 (1.2–9.0)263.2 (71.1–637.8)
Observed Detection Rates from Included Studies (Minimum-Maximum Range)0%–100%0%–100%63.6%–100%
Observed False Positive Rates from Included Studies (Minimum-Maximum Range)0.1%–12.5%0.2%–26.1%0%–1.6%
Pooled Detection Rate83.1% (72.6–90.2)43.9% (23.0–67.2)90.3% (75.7–96.6)
Pooled False Positive Rate4.4% (3.0–6.4)8.1% (3.1–19.7)0.2% (0.05–0.8)

3.2. Trisomy 18 (Edward Syndrome)

Trisomy 18 was the most frequently reported condition in eligible studies. Data was obtained from 61 studies, including 30 that utilized the first trimester combined test [15,16,17,18,19,20,21,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60], 17 that used the second trimester triple screen [31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69], 12 that contained data on NIPT [40,41,42,43,44,45,70,71,72,73,74], 3 studies that used the second trimester quadruple screen [47,75,76], and 2 studies that reported data on patients undergoing integrated or sequential screening [52,77] (Table 3 and Appendix B). One of the studies reporting on NIPT included data from two separate patient groups [72], and is included as two separate studies in the diagnostic meta-analysis.

Similar to screening for trisomy 13, substantial heterogeneity was observed in the definition for a “screen positive” test for trisomy 18. Positive risk scores for the first trimester combined screen ranged from risks ≥1/100 to ≥1/300. Approximately half of the studies using the second trimester triple screen that reported their definition for “screen positive” results used a patient-specific risk (risks ≥1/100 or ≥1/200), while the remaining studies used a fixed cut-off level based on levels of serum analytes (typically AFP ≤ 0.75 MoM, hCG ≤ 0.55 MoM, and uE3 ≤ 0.60 MoM). Again, studies differed in that some reported cut-off values based on the risk of trisomy 18 at the time of the test (either the first trimester or the second trimester) or at term.

Table Table 3. Pooled results for trisomy 18.

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Table 3. Pooled results for trisomy 18.
Study CharacteristicsPrenatal Screening Test
1st Trimester Combined Test2nd Trimester Triple ScreenNon-Invasive Prenatal Testing
Number of Studies301712
Number of Patients325,8081,752,18410,778
Number of Cases581693302
Median prevalence per 10,000 pregnancies (25th–75th percentile range)13.9 (8.3–21.3)4.8 (3.0–22.5)454.2 (134.8–801.3)
Observed Detection Rates from Included Studies (Minimum-Maximum Range)50%–100%0%–100%90%–100%
Observed False Positive Rates from Included Studies (Minimum-Maximum Range)0.4%–15.8%0.2%–35.7%0%–2.0%
Pooled Detection Rate91.9% (85.8–95.6)70.5% (60.9–78.6)98.1% (95.1–99.2)
Pooled False Positive Rate3.5% (2.5–4.9)3.3% (3.1–3.6)0.2% (0.1–0.4)

NIPT exhibited the best overall test performance with a pooled detection rate of 98.1% and false positive rate of <1% (Table 3). The first trimester combined test outperformed the second trimester triple screen, as it had a significantly higher detection rate (91.9% vs. 70.5%), with no difference in the false positive rate (p > 0.05) (Table 3). There were an insufficient number of studies to derive pooled estimates on the detection rate and false positive rate for trisomy 18 using the second trimester quadruple test, but the observed detection rate ranged from 44.4% to 100% with false positive rates ranging from 0.5% to 9.6% [47,75,76]. Pooled results from the triple screen population may be generalizable to women screened with the quadruple test, as Inhibin A is not part of the trisomy 18 screening protocol.

There were an insufficient number of studies using integrated/sequential screening to determine pooled detection and false positive rates; however, the observed detection rate was 100% in both studies using integrated/sequential screening, while the observed false positive rates ranged from 3.7% to 7.3% [52,77].

3.3. 45,X (Turner Syndrome)

Twenty studies included data on Turner syndrome, 6 that utilized the first trimester combined screen [19,23,26,30,49,51], 9 that used the second trimester triple screen [31,32,33,34,35,36,66,78,79], 4 that involved NIPT [40,42,43,45], and a single study that used the second trimester quadruple screen [76] (Table 4 and Appendix B).

Table Table 4. Pooled results for 45,X.

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Table 4. Pooled results for 45,X.
Study CharacteristicsPrenatal Screening Test
1st Trimester Combined Test2nd Trimester Triple ScreenNon-Invasive Prenatal Testing
Number of Studies694
Number of Patients95,1591,385,2961491
Number of Cases3729030
Median prevalence per 10,000 pregnancies (25th–75th percentile range)4.2 (2.5–9.3)3.2 (2.5–6.1)397.5 (206.9–583.1)
Observed Detection Rates from Included Studies (Minimum-Maximum Range)0%–100%0%–100%75%–100%
Observed False Positive Rates from Included Studies (Minimum-Maximum Range)4.3%–7.2%5.1%–26.1%0%–0.2%
Pooled Detection Rate70.1% (51.8–83.7)77.2% (59.9–88.5)92.2% (91.6–92.8)
Pooled False Positive Rate5.4% (4.7–6.3)9.3% (6.7–12.8)0.1% (0.11–0.12)

With the exception of NIPT, none of the other screening tests involved a specific risk cut-off to identify patients at increased risk of carrying a fetus with Turner syndrome. Turner syndrome is considered an incidental finding amongst patients who screen positive for trisomy 13, 18 or 21 with the first trimester combined test and the second trimester triple and quadruple screens. This has implications for the interpretation of test results in a clinical setting.

NIPT had the best overall test performance with a detection rate of 92.2% and a false positive rate of <0.1% (Table 4). A significant difference was not observed between the first trimester combined test and the second trimester triple screen for detection rate, although the first trimester combined test had a significantly lower false positive rate (p < 0.05) (Table 4). The single study that used the second trimester quadruple screen had an observed detection rate of 66.7% and a false positive rate of 9.6% [76].

3.4. Triploidy

Finally, 11 studies provided data on triploidy: 7 of which used the first trimester combined test [19,20,23,24,27,30,51], 3 utilized the second trimester triple screen [32,33,35] and 1 used the second trimester quadruple screen [76]. Triploidy was an incidental finding amongst women who were screen positive for trisomy 13, 18 or 21. This has implications for the interpretation of test results in a clinical setting and how patients should be counseled following a positive screening test.

Seven studies, representing 93,796 women and 15 affected fetuses, contained data on the first trimester combined screen and could be pooled using diagnostic meta-analysis [19,20,23,24,27,30,51]. These studies had a pooled detection rate of 100.0% (99.9–100.0) and a pooled false positive rate of 6.3% (4.9–8.0) (Appendix B). Comparable results were also observed for the other screening tests, even though sufficient data were not available to derive pooled estimates. Observed detection rates ranged from 98.1% to 100% with observed false positive rates of 2.6%–10.6% for the second trimester triple screen [32,33,35]; while the single study that used the quadruple screen reported a detection rate of 100% and a false positive rate of 9.6%.

4. Discussion

The results of this systematic review and diagnostic meta-analysis confirm the general consensus that for all conditions, NIPT is a superior test in terms of detection rate and false positive rate than other screening tests for aneuploidies, with the caveat that most studies have been performed in high risk populations. However, NIPT is subject to a higher rate of test failures than other prenatal screening tests and currently only provides results for a limited number of aneuploidies. The dramatically higher median prevalence of aneuploidies used in studies of NIPT to date has important implications on test performance in a low-risk setting. While this is unlikely to impact the overall detection rate and false positive rate, positive predictive values (odds of being affected given a positive result) are particularly sensitive to the prevalence of the condition being studied [80,81]. Additionally, pooled results for NIPT did not display 100% detection rates for any condition, indicating the importance of confirmatory invasive testing. Furthermore, due to the high cost of NIPT, many centers continue to utilize other forms of prenatal screening. Nonetheless, having data on pooled detection rates and false positives rates may be helpful when counseling patients.

Multiple studies have indicated that up to half of the chromosomal anomalies identified through invasive testing for abnormal prenatal screening results or increased maternal age are not autosomal aneuploidies [15,82,83]. Several authors have expressed concern that moving away from serum and ultrasound based screening to prenatal screening based exclusively on NIPT might miss the detection of rare chromosomal anomalies [5,73,84]. Furthermore, extreme levels of serum analytes are associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes and may be useful to help triage patients into higher levels of prenatal care [85,86,87,88]. Contingent screening with NIPT might provide a compromise in terms of maintaining the benefits of existing prenatal screening programs, while reducing the number of women who proceed onto invasive testing, but the current costs of NIPT make this prohibitive to implement in many population-based screening programs. While the costs of NIPT will likely decrease over time, the current cost of NIPT is $795 (Canadian dollars) in contrast to $303 for the first trimester combined test and $15 for the second trimester triple screen [89,90].

Current clinical practice guidelines recommend that prenatal screening should be offered through an informed consent process; in particular, the Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada has issued counseling recommendations specifically detailing that all women who are offered prenatal screening should be told that all women have some risk of having a fetus affected by trisomy 21, 18, or 13 [91]. We suggest additional pre-screening counseling recommendations that women should be informed that, while prenatal screening tests have been developed to specifically target the detection of trisomy 21, 18, and 13, other chromosomal anomalies and obstetrical risks may be detected by the screen as well. In particular, it would be worth discussing sex chromosome aneuploidy and triploidy in light of available data, but some mention of the breadth of unexpected results would enhance the informed consent process.

This study has limitations. The search specifically excluded terms related to trisomy 21—this was done on purpose to restrict the number of abstracts identified and because the goal of this review was to look at chromosomal anomalies other than trisomy 21. This may have resulted in some relevant articles not being identified in the initial search; however, the reference lists of accepted articles were hand searched to identify other relevant articles. The quality of the pooled results is a direct reflection of the data included in the original articles; the authors of many studies made the assumption that false negative cases would be brought to their attention through cytogenetic databases or birth certificates and did not actively follow-up all women screened. Additionally, the raw data on true positives, false positives, false negatives and true negatives sometimes had to be back-calculated based on reported detection and false positive rates; this may have resulted in some minor inaccuracies. The model used to generate pooled detection and false positive rates does not specifically account for differences in cut-off values or the specific screening algorithm used to define a positive or negative screening test [14]. However, this is reflected in the different estimates of sensitivity and specificity obtained from individual studies and the heterogeneity of these estimates is directly modeled and used to derive the pooled estimates [14]. Multiple between-study differences were observed in terms of the maternal age distribution, inclusion of pregnancies that ultimately resulted in spontaneous abortion and of multiple gestation pregnancies, test uniformity (specifically related to the use of free β hCG vs. total hCG), and test quality standards (specifically related to the use of nuchal translucency). While a random effects model was used to derive pooled estimates, this model addresses statistical heterogeneity, not clinical heterogeneity in the underlying populations. Finally, the search was limited to English language articles which may limit the generalizability of the results. However, the included studies came from North America, Europe, Australia and Asia, indicating wide geographic coverage.

5. Conclusions

In conclusion, while prenatal screening tests are often described to patients in terms of trisomy 21, they do (to varying degrees) identify other chromosomal anomalies. Providing this information to patients prior to screening can help them make an informed choice about accessing prenatal screening and, in some contexts, which screening test is preferable to them.

Acknowledgments

Amy Metcalfe holds a fellowship award from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Catriona Hippman is supported by the Women’s Health Research Institute.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Appendix

Table Appendix A. Included studies.

Click here to display table

Appendix A. Included studies.
StudyScreening TestNDetection RateFalse Positive RateCut-Off to Define a Positive Screening TestLocation
Trisomy 13
Alamillo 2013 [15]First Trimester Combined Test23,329100.06.3T21: 1/300
T13/T18: 1/150
USA
Berktold 2013 [29]First Trimester Combined Test14,86283.34.7 Germany
Hormansdorfer 2009 [16]First Trimester Combined Test220205.81/230Germany
Kagan 2008 [17]First Trimester Combined Test56,95493.43.1 UK
Karadozov-Orlic 2012 [18]First Trimester Combined Test417281.85.3 Serbia
Marttala 2011 [19]First Trimester Combined Test56,07654.54.5T21: 1/250
T13/T18: 1/200
Finland
Merz 2008 [28]First Trimester Combined Test40,80292.35.0 Germany
Ochshorn 2001 [26]First Trimester Combined Test140866.77.1 Israel
Orlandi 1997 [20]First Trimester Combined Test201050.012.5 Italy
Scott 2004 [30]First Trimester Combined Test2053100.07.2 Australia
Sorensen 2011 [21]First Trimester Combined Test19,69472.71.0T21: 1/300
T13/T18: 1/150
Denmark
Spencer 2000 [22]First Trimester Combined Test98983.30.1 England
Spencer 2000 [27]First Trimester Combined Test3762100.06.7T13/T18/T21: 1/300England
Spencer 2003 [23]First Trimester Combined Test11,105100.05.2T13/T18/T21: 1/300England
Stenhouse 2004 [24]First Trimester Combined Test5084100.06.2T13/T18/T21: 1/250Scotland
Valinen 2012 [25]First Trimester Combined Test100066.74.6T13/T18: 1/200Finland
Benn 1996 [31]Second Trimester Triple Screen26,36420.08.7T21: 1/270
T18: AFP ≤ 0.75 MoM,
Hcg ≤ 0.55 MoM,
uE3 ≤ 0.6 MoM
USA
Burton 1993 [32]Second Trimester Triple Screen823300.2T21: 1/270
T18: AFP ≤ 0.7 MoM,
hCG ≤ 0.5 MoM,
uE3 ≤ 0.55 MoM
USA
Kazerouni 2009 [33]Second Trimester Triple Screen752,68636.06.6T21: 1/190
T18: 1/100
USA
Onda 2000 [34]Second Trimester Triple Screen32,925100.014.5T21: 1/295
T18: 1/100
Japan
Summers 2003 [35]Second Trimester Triple Screen423,89560.09.7T21: 1/385 at term
T18: 1/100
Canada
Suzumori 1997 [37]Second Trimester Triple Screen107850.020.3T21: 1/299Japan
Wenstrom 1995 [36]Second Trimester Triple Screen1423026.1T21: 1/190
T18: AFP ≤ 0.75 MoM,
hCG ≤ 0.55 MoM,
uE3 ≤ 0.6 MoM
USA
Wortelboer 2008 [38]Second Trimester Triple Screen30,29050.013.1T21: 1/200
T18: 1/200
Netherlands
Ashoor 2013 [39]Non-invasive prenatal testing15663.60 England
Ashoor 2013 [39]Non-invasive prenatal testing194980.00.1 England and USA
Bianchi 2012 [40]Non-invasive prenatal testing53278.60 USA
Chen 2011 [41]Non-invasive prenatal testing392100.01.1 Hong Kong,
Netherlands,
UK
Jiang 2012 [42]Non-invasive prenatal testing903100.00 China
Lau 2012 [43]Non-invasive prenatal testing108100.00 Japan
Palomaki 2012 [44]Non-invasive prenatal testing168891.71.0z score ≥ 3Argentina, Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Spain, USA
Sehnert 2011 [45]Non-invasive prenatal testing47100.00>2.5 standard deviations of the meanUSA
Sehnert 2011 [45]Non-invasive prenatal testing65100.01.6>2.5 standard deviations of the meanUSA
Trisomy 18
Alamillo 2013 [15]First trimester combined test23,329100.06.3T21: 1/300
T13/18: 1/150
USA
Berktold 2013 [29]First trimester combined test14,862100.04.7 Germany
Borrell 2004 [46]First trimester combined test276575.03.3T21: 1/250Spain
Breathnach 2007 [47]First trimester combined test35,97482.16.0T21: 1/150
T18: 1/100
USA
Centini 2005 [48]First trimester combined test408100.015.8 Italy
Chou 2009 [49]First trimester combined test10,81150.05.4T21: 1/270Taiwan
Dhaifalah 2006 [50]First trimester combined test686100.05.11/250Czech Republic
Gaffari 2012 [51]First trimester combined test13,706100.04.71/300Iran
Guanciali-Franchi 2011 [52]First trimester combined test729266.74.2 Italy
Hormansdorder 2009 [16]First trimester combined test220250.05.71/230Germany
Jacques 2007 [53]First trimester combined test15,24366.70.4T21: 1/300
T18: 1/250
Australia
Kagan 2008 [17]First trimester combined test56,95496.72.4 UK
Karadzov-Orlic 2012 [18]First trimester combined test417285.75.3 Serbia
Krantz 2000 [54]First trimester combined test5718100.00.8T18: 1/150USA
Martinez-Morillo 2012 [55]First trimester combined test18,801100.00.41/250Spain
Marttala 2011 [19]First trimester combined test56,07674.14.5T21: 1/250
T13/18: 1/200
Finland
Merz 2008 [28]First trimester combined test40,80294.15.0 Germany
Ochshorn 2001 [26]First trimester combined test140866.77.1 Israel
Orlandi 1997 [20]First trimester combined test2010100.012.3 Italy
Perni 2006 [56]First trimester combined test4615100.01.0 USA
Scott 2004 [30]First trimester combined test2053100.07.2 Australia
Sorensen 2011 [21]First trimester combined test19,69491.31.5T21: 1/300
T13/18: 1/150
Denmark
Spencer 2000 [27]First trimester combined test3762100.06.6T13/18/21: 1/300England
Spencer 2003 [23]First trimester combined test11,105100.05.1T13/18/21: 1/300England
Spencer 2007 [57]First trimester combined test52196.21.3T21: 1/300
T13/18: 1/100
UK
Stenhouse 2004 [24]First trimester combined test5084100.06.1T13/18/21: 1/250Scotland
Tsai 2001 [58]First trimester combined test151450.06.3T21: 1/400Taiwan
Tul 1999 [59]First trimester combined test99790.01.1 England
Valinen 2012 [25]First trimester combined test100073.74.6T13/18: 1/200Finland
Wapner 2003 [60]First trimester combined test8216100.02.0T21: 1/270
T18:1/150
USA
Barkai 1993 [61]Second trimester triple screen550266.70.3T21: 1/300
T18: 1/100
Israel
Benn 1996 [31]Second trimester triple screen26,36462.58.6T21: 1/270
T18: AFP ≥ 0.75 MoM,
hCG ≤ 0.55 MoM,
uE3 ≤ 0.6 MoM
USA
Benn 1999 [62]Second trimester triple screen41,56592.30.4T21: 1/270
T18: 1/100
USA
Burton 1993 [32]Second trimester triple screen8233100.00.2T21: 1/270
T18: AFP ≥ 0.7 MoM,
hCG ≤ 0.5 MoM,
uE3 ≤ 0.55 MoM
USA
Hogge 2001 [63]Second trimester triple screen45,14566.70.51/100USA
Kazerouni 2009 [33]Second trimester triple screen752,68682.56.6T21: 1/190
T18: 1/100
USA
Kellner 1995 [64]Second trimester triple screen864966.70.2T18: AFP ≥ 0.75 MoM,
hCG ≤ 0.55 MoM,
uE3 ≤ 0.6 MoM
USA
Kishida 2000 [65]Second trimester triple screen105560.035.7T21: 1/299 or AFP ≥ 2.5 MoMJapan
McDuffie 1996 [66]Second trimester triple screen6197100.00.2T21: 1/295
T18: AFP ≥ 0.75 MoM,
hCG ≤ 0.55 MoM,
uE3 ≤ 0.6 MoM
USA
Meier 2003 [67]Second trimester triple screen382,59862.20.21/30 (2nd Trimester) or 1/100 at termCanada
Onda 2000 [34]Second trimester triple screen32,92596.40.5T21: 1/295
T18: 1/100
Japan
Palomaki 1995 [68]Second trimester triple screen10,62065.20.2 USA
Summers 2003 [35]Second trimester triple screen423,89552.80.2T21: 1/385 (at term)
T18: 1/100
Canada
Suzumori 1997 [37]Second trimester triple screen1078020.4T21: 1/299Japan
Wenstrom 1995 [36]Second trimester triple screen142375.025.9T21: 1/190
T18: AFP ≥ 0.75 MoM,
hCG ≤ 0.55 MoM,
uE3 ≤ 0.6 MoM
USA
Wenstrom 1997 [69]Second trimester triple screen532741.71.8T21: 1/190
T18: AFP ≥ 0.75 MoM,
hCG ≤ 0.55 MoM,
uE3 ≤ 0.6 MoM
USA
Wortelboer 2008 [38]Second trimester triple screen30,29067.913.1T21: 1/250
T18: 1/200
Netherlands
Breathnach 2007 [47]Second trimester quadruple screen35,120100.08.9T21: 1/300
T18: 1/100
USA
Jacques 2006 [75]Second trimester quadruple screen16,60744.40.5T21: 1/250
T18: 1/200
Australia
Kwon 2012 [76]Second trimester quadruple screen9435100.09.6T21: 1/270
T18: 1/100
Korea
Ashoor 2012 [74]Non-invasive prenatal testing3979800 UK
Bianchi 2012 [40]Non-invasive prenatal testing53297.20 USA
Chen 2011 [41]Non-invasive prenatal testing39291.92.0 Hong Kong,
Netherlands,
UK
Dan 2012 [70]Non-invasive prenatal testing3000100.00.03 China
Jiang 2012 [42]Non-invasive prenatal testing903100.00.1 China
Lau 2012 [43]Non-invasive prenatal testing10890.00 Japan
Nicolaides 2012 [73]Non-invasive prenatal testing1949100.00.Risk ≥1%UK
Norton 2012 [71]Non-invasive prenatal testing308097.40.11/100USA, Netherlands, Sweden
Palomaki 2012 [44]Non-invasive prenatal testing1971100.00.3z score ≥ 3Argentina,
Australia,
Canada,
Czech Republic,
Hungary,
Ireland,
Italy,
Spain,
USA
Sehnert 2011 [45]Non-invasive prenatal testing65100.01.6>2.5 standard deviations of the meanUSA
Sparks 2012 [72]Non-invasive prenatal testing167100.00.6 USA
Sparks 2012 [72]Non-invasive prenatal testing163100.00 USA
Benn 2007 [77]Integrated screening1203100.07.3 USA
Guanciali-Franchi 2011 [52]Integrated screening7292100.03.71/250Italy
45,X
Chou 2009 [49]First trimester combined test10,81180.05.4T21: 1/270Taiwan
Ghaffari 2012 [51]First trimester combined test13,706100.04.71/300Iran
Marttala 2011 [19]First trimester combined test56,07657.14.3T21: 1/250
T13/T18: 1/200
Finland
Ochshorn 2001 [26]First trimester combined test140860.07.1 Israel
Scott 2004 [30]First trimester combined test205307.2 Australia
Spencer 2003 [23]First trimester combined test11,105100.05.2T13/T18/T21: 1/300England
Benn 1996 [31]Second trimester triple screen26,36475.08.7T21: 1/270
T18: AFP ≤ 0.75 MoM,
hCG ≤ 0.55 MoM,
uE3 ≤ 0.6 MoM
USA
Burton 1993 [32]Second trimester triple screen823360.010.6T21: 1/270
T18: AFP ≤ 0.7 MoM,
hCG ≤ 0.5 MoM,
uE3 ≤ 0.55 MoM
USA
Kazerouni 2009 [33]Second trimester triple screen752,68679.46.6T21: 1/190
T18: 1/100
USA
McDuffie 1996 [66]Second trimester triple screen619750.05.6T21: 1/295
T18: AFP ≤ 0.75 MoM,
hCG ≤ 0.55 MoM,
uE3 ≤ 0.6 MoM
USA
Onda 2000 [34]Second trimester triple screen32,92575.014.5T21: 1/295
T18: 1/100
Japan
Ruiz 1999 [78]Second trimester triple screen130,59563.25.1T21: 1/225USA
Summers 2003 [35]Second trimester triple screen423,89597.39.7T21: 1/385 (at term)
T18: 1/100
Canada
Valerio 1996 [79]Second trimester triple screen2978100.07.1T21: 1/270Italy
Wenstrom 1995 [36]Second trimester triple screen1423026.1T21: 1/190
T18: AFP ≤ 0.75 MoM,
hCG ≤ 0.55 MoM,
uE3 ≤ 0.6 MoM
USA
Kwon 2012 [76]Second trimester quadruple screen943566.79.6T21: 1/270
T18: 1/100
Korea
Bianchi 2012 [40]Non-invasive prenatal testing43393.80.2 USA
Jiang 2012 [42]Non-invasive prenatal testing90375.00.2 China
Lau 2012 [43]Non-invasive prenatal testing108100.00 Japan
Sehnert 2011 [45]Non-invasive prenatal testing47100.00>2.5 standard deviations of the meanUSA
Triploidy
Ghaffari 2012 [51]First trimester combined test13,706100.04.81/300Iran
Marttala 2011 [19]First trimester combined test56,07650.04.3T21: 1/250
T13/T18: 1/200
Finland
Orlandi 1997 [20]First trimester combined test2010100.012.4 Italy
Scott 2004 [30]First trimester combined test2053100.07.2 Australia
Spencer 2000 [27]First trimester combined test3762100.06.7T13/T18/T21: 1/300England
Spencer 2003 [23]First trimester combined test11,105100.05.2T13/T18/T21: 1/300England
Stenhouse 2004 [24]First trimester combined test5084100.06.2T13/T18/T21: 1/250Scotland
Burton 1993 [32]Second trimester triple screen8233100.010.6T21: 1/270
T18: AFP ≤ 0.7 MoM,
hCG ≤ 0.5 MoM,
uE3 ≤ 0.55 MoM
USA
Kazerouni 2009 [33]Second trimester triple screen752,68698.16.6T21: 1/190
T18: 1/100
USA
Summers 2003 [35]Second trimester triple screen423,895100.09.7T21: 1/385 at term
T18: 1/100
Canada
Kwon 2012 [76]Second trimester quadruple screen9435100.09.6T21: 1/270
T18: 1/100
Korea

Appendix B—Summary Receiver Operator Characteristic (SROC) Curves

The Summary Receiver Operator Characteristic (SROC) curves below plot the sensitivity (detection rate) of a given test against 1-specificity (false positive rate) of a given test for detecting the condition of interest [13]. Circles represent the point estimate from included studies; the size of the circle is related to the sample size of the study [13]. Diamonds represent the pooled detection rate and false positive rate [13]. The dashed lines represent the 95% confidence region surrounding the pooled effect estimate, while the dotted lines represent the 95% prediction region that would encompass the true detection rate and false positive rates in future studies [13]. The HSROC curve represents the summary receiver operator characteristic curve obtained from the model [13].

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Appendix Figure B1. Summary Receiver Operator Characteristic (SROC) Curves for the detection of trisomy 13 using (A) first trimester combined test; (B) second trimester triple screen; and (C) non-invasive prenatal testing.

Click here to enlarge figure

Appendix Figure B1. Summary Receiver Operator Characteristic (SROC) Curves for the detection of trisomy 13 using (A) first trimester combined test; (B) second trimester triple screen; and (C) non-invasive prenatal testing.
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Appendix Figure B2. Summary Receiver Operator Characteristic (SROC) Curves for the detection of trisomy 18 using (A) first trimester combined test; (B) second trimester triple screen; and (C) non-invasive prenatal testing.

Click here to enlarge figure

Appendix Figure B2. Summary Receiver Operator Characteristic (SROC) Curves for the detection of trisomy 18 using (A) first trimester combined test; (B) second trimester triple screen; and (C) non-invasive prenatal testing.
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Appendix Figure B3. Summary Receiver Operator Characteristic (SROC) Curves for the detection of 45,X using (A) first trimester combined test; (B) second trimester triple screen; and (C) non-invasive prenatal testing.

Click here to enlarge figure

Appendix Figure B3. Summary Receiver Operator Characteristic (SROC) Curves for the detection of 45,X using (A) first trimester combined test; (B) second trimester triple screen; and (C) non-invasive prenatal testing.
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Appendix Figure B4. Summary Receiver Operator Characteristic (SROC) Curves for the detection of triploidy using the first trimester combined test.

Click here to enlarge figure

Appendix Figure B4. Summary Receiver Operator Characteristic (SROC) Curves for the detection of triploidy using the first trimester combined test.
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