Next Article in Journal
Investigation of Antibacterial and Fouling Resistance of Silver and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Doped Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride-co-Hexafluoropropylene) Composite Membrane
Next Article in Special Issue
Electro-Conductive Membranes for Permeation Enhancement and Fouling Mitigation: A Short Review
Previous Article in Journal
Thermal Stability of Phase-Separated Domains in Multicomponent Lipid Membranes with Local Anesthetics
Previous Article in Special Issue
Poly(vinylbenzylchloride) Based Anion-Exchange Blend Membranes (AEBMs): Influence of PEG Additive on Conductivity and Stability
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Membranes 2017, 7(3), 34; doi:10.3390/membranes7030034

Nanofiltration and Tight Ultrafiltration Membranes for Natural Organic Matter Removal—Contribution of Fouling and Concentration Polarization to Filtration Resistance

1
Department of Civil Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC V6T1Z4, Canada
2
Department of Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 2 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seven Years of Membranes: Feature Paper 2017)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2164 KB, uploaded 7 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

Nanofiltration (NF) and tight ultrafiltration (tight UF) membranes are a viable treatment option for high quality drinking water production from sources with high concentrations of contaminants. To date, there is limited knowledge regarding the contribution of concentration polarization (CP) and fouling to the increase in resistance during filtration of natural organic matter (NOM) with NF and tight UF. Filtration tests were conducted with NF and tight UF membranes with molecular weight cut offs (MWCOs) of 300, 2000 and 8000 Da, and model raw waters containing different constituents of NOM. When filtering model raw waters containing high concentrations of polysaccharides (i.e., higher molecular weight NOM), the increase in resistance was dominated by fouling. When filtering model raw waters containing humic substances (i.e., lower molecular weight NOM), the increase in filtration resistance was dominated by CP. The results indicate that low MWCO membranes are better suited for NOM removal, because most of the NOM in surface waters consist mainly of humic substances, which were only effectively rejected by the lower MWCO membranes. However, when humic substances are effectively rejected, CP can become extensive, leading to a significant increase in filtration resistance by the formation of a cake/gel layer at the membrane surface. For this reason, cross-flow operation, which reduces CP, is recommended. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanofiltration; tight ultrafiltration; concentration polarization; fouling; natural organic matter nanofiltration; tight ultrafiltration; concentration polarization; fouling; natural organic matter
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Winter, J.; Barbeau, B.; Bérubé, P. Nanofiltration and Tight Ultrafiltration Membranes for Natural Organic Matter Removal—Contribution of Fouling and Concentration Polarization to Filtration Resistance. Membranes 2017, 7, 34.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Membranes EISSN 2077-0375 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top