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Membranes 2017, 7(2), 29; doi:10.3390/membranes7020029

Influence of Membrane Equivalent Weight and Reinforcement on Ionic Species Crossover in All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

1
Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion Laboratory, Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
2
Energy and Transportation Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jerry Meldon
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 June 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Transport Modeling)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4232 KB, uploaded 6 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

One of the major sources of lost capacity in all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) is the undesired transport (usually called crossover) of water and vanadium ions through the ion-exchange membrane. In this work, an experimental assessment of the impact of ion-exchange membrane properties on vanadium ion crossover and capacity decay of VRFBs has been performed. Two types of cationic membranes (non-reinforced and reinforced) with three equivalent weights of 800, 950 and 1100 g·mol−1 were investigated via a series of in situ performance and capacity decay tests along with ex situ vanadium crossover measurement and membrane characterization. For non-reinforced membranes, increasing the equivalent weight (EW) from 950 to 1100 g·mol−1 decreases the V(IV) permeability by ~30%, but increases the area-specific resistance (ASR) by ~16%. This increase in ASR and decrease in V(IV) permeability was accompanied by increased through-plane membrane swelling. Comparing the non-reinforced with reinforced membranes, membrane reinforcement increases ASR, but V(IV) permeability decreases. It was also shown that there exists a monotonic correlation between the discharge capacity decay over long-term cycling and V(IV) permeability values. Thus, V(IV) permeability is considered a representative diagnostic for assessing the overall performance of a particular ion-exchange membrane with respect to capacity fade in a VRFB. View Full-Text
Keywords: vanadium redox flow battery; crossover; equivalent weight; reinforcement; swelling; conductivity; UV-Vis spectroscopy vanadium redox flow battery; crossover; equivalent weight; reinforcement; swelling; conductivity; UV-Vis spectroscopy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ashraf Gandomi, Y.; Aaron, D.S.; Mench, M.M. Influence of Membrane Equivalent Weight and Reinforcement on Ionic Species Crossover in All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries. Membranes 2017, 7, 29.

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