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Membranes 2016, 6(4), 57; doi:10.3390/membranes6040057

Incorporation of Graphene-Related Carbon Nanosheets in Membrane Fabrication for Water Treatment: A Review

School of Biotechnology and DCU Water Institute, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland
Academic Editor: Tahar Laoui
Received: 22 November 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2071 KB, uploaded 19 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

The minimization of the trade-off between the flux and the selectivity of membranes is a key area that researchers are continually working to optimise, particularly in the area of fabrication of novel membranes. Flux versus selectivity issues apply in many industrial applications of membranes, for example the unwanted diffusion of methanol in fuel cells, retention of valuable proteins in downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals, rejection of organic matter and micro-organisms in water treatment, or salt permeation in desalination. The incorporation of nanosheets within membrane structures can potentially lead to enhancements in such properties as the antifouling ability, hydrophilicy and permeability of membranes, with concomitant improvements in the flux/selectivity balance. Graphene nanosheets and derivatives such as graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide have been investigated for this purpose, for example inclusion of nanosheets within the active layer of Reverse Osmosis or Nanofiltration membranes or the blending of nanosheets as fillers within Ultrafiltration membranes. This review summarizes the incorporation of graphene derivatives into polymeric membranes for water treatment with a focus on a number of industrial applications, including desalination and pharmaceutical removal, where enhancement of productivity and reduction in fouling characteristics have been afforded by appropriate incorporation of graphene derived nanosheets during membrane fabrication. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon nanosheets; graphene; graphene oxide; water treatment carbon nanosheets; graphene; graphene oxide; water treatment
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Lawler, J. Incorporation of Graphene-Related Carbon Nanosheets in Membrane Fabrication for Water Treatment: A Review. Membranes 2016, 6, 57.

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