Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Interaction Study of Phospholipid Membranes with an N-Glucosylated β-Turn Peptide Structure Detecting Autoantibodies Biomarkers of Multiple Sclerosis
Previous Article in Journal
Strong Static Magnetic Fields Increase the Gel Signal in Partially Hydrated DPPC/DMPC Membranes
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Membranes 2015, 5(4), 553-575; doi:10.3390/membranes5040553

Regulation of the Target of Rapamycin and Other Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Related Kinases by Membrane Targeting

1
Department of Chemistry, Biomolecular NMR Spectroscopy, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 4, Garching 85747, Germany
2
Institute of Structural Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shiro Suetsugu
Received: 26 August 2015 / Accepted: 24 September 2015 / Published: 29 September 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1628 KB, uploaded 29 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs) play vital roles in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, survival, and consequently metabolism, as well as in the cellular response to stresses such as ionizing radiation or redox changes. In humans six family members are known to date, namely mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ataxia- and Rad3-related (ATR), DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), suppressor of morphogenesis in genitalia-1 (SMG-1), and transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP). All fulfill rather diverse functions and most of them have been detected in different cellular compartments including various cellular membranes. It has been suggested that the regulation of the localization of signaling proteins allows for generating a locally specific output. Moreover, spatial partitioning is expected to improve the reliability of biochemical signaling. Since these assumptions may also be true for the regulation of PIKK function, the current knowledge about the regulation of the localization of PIKKs at different cellular (membrane) compartments by a network of interactions is reviewed. Membrane targeting can involve direct lipid-/membrane interactions as well as interactions with membrane-anchored regulatory proteins, such as, for example, small GTPases, or a combination of both. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-related kinase; membrane targeting; protein–membrane interaction; signal transduction; mTOR; ATM; ATR; DNA-PKcs; SMG-1; TRRAP phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-related kinase; membrane targeting; protein–membrane interaction; signal transduction; mTOR; ATM; ATR; DNA-PKcs; SMG-1; TRRAP
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

De Cicco, M.; Rahim, M.S.A.; Dames, S.A. Regulation of the Target of Rapamycin and Other Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Related Kinases by Membrane Targeting. Membranes 2015, 5, 553-575.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Membranes EISSN 2077-0375 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top