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Membranes 2013, 3(4), 415-423; doi:10.3390/membranes3040415
Article

The Fouling of Zirconium(IV) Hydrous Oxide–Polyacrylate Dynamically Formed Membranes during the Nanofiltration of Lactic Acid Solutions

Received: 15 November 2013; in revised form: 22 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 10 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Processes and Energy)
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Abstract: The results of investigations of flux decline during nanofiltration (NF) of lactic acid solutions using dynamically formed zirconium(IV) hydrous oxide/polyacrylate membranes (Zr(IV)/PAA) under conditions resulting in low and high lactic acid rejection are reported. The experimental permeate flux versus time curves were analyzed in the frame of resistance in a series model with the aim of developing the characteristic of resistances. Analysis of experimental data and results of calculations showed that the reduction of fouling effects in the investigated system could be achieved due to appropriate hydrodynamic process conditions and regular rinsing with deionized water.
Keywords: nanofiltration; dynamically formed membranes; lactic acid; fouling; resistance in series model nanofiltration; dynamically formed membranes; lactic acid; fouling; resistance in series model
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Polom, E. The Fouling of Zirconium(IV) Hydrous Oxide–Polyacrylate Dynamically Formed Membranes during the Nanofiltration of Lactic Acid Solutions. Membranes 2013, 3, 415-423.

AMA Style

Polom E. The Fouling of Zirconium(IV) Hydrous Oxide–Polyacrylate Dynamically Formed Membranes during the Nanofiltration of Lactic Acid Solutions. Membranes. 2013; 3(4):415-423.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Polom, Ewa. 2013. "The Fouling of Zirconium(IV) Hydrous Oxide–Polyacrylate Dynamically Formed Membranes during the Nanofiltration of Lactic Acid Solutions." Membranes 3, no. 4: 415-423.


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