Membranes 2013, 3(2), 44-68; doi:10.3390/membranes3020044
Article

Experimental Study of Membrane Fouling during Crossflow Microfiltration of Yeast and Bacteria Suspensions: Towards an Analysis at the Microscopic Level

1,2,3,4,†email, 5,6,†email, 2,3,4,†,* email, 2,3,4,†email and 1,†email
Received: 7 February 2013; in revised form: 22 April 2013 / Accepted: 24 April 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes and Water Treatment)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Microfiltration of model cell suspensions combining macroscopic and microscopic approaches was studied in order to better understand microbial membrane fouling mechanisms. The respective impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and Escherichia coli bacteria on crossflow microfiltration performances was investigated using a multichannel ceramic 0.2 µm membrane. Pure yeast suspensions (5 µm ovoid cells) and mixtures of yeast and bacteria (1 to 2.5 µm rod shape cells) were considered in order to analyse the effect of interaction between these two microorganisms on fouling reversibility. The resistances varied significantly with the concentration and characteristics of the microorganisms. Membrane fouling with pure yeast suspension was mainly reversible. For yeast and bacteria mixed suspensions (6 g L−1 yeast concentration) the increase in bacteria from 0.15 to 0.30 g L−1 increased the percentage of normalized reversible resistance. At 10 g L−1 yeast concentration, the addition of bacteria tends to increase the percentage of normalized irreversible resistance. For the objective of performing local analysis of fouling, an original filtration chamber allowing direct in situ observation of the cake by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was designed, developed and validated. This device will be used in future studies to characterize cake structure at the microscopic scale.
Keywords: microfiltration; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Escherichia coli; filtration resistances; filtration chamber design; direct observation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hassan, I.B.; Ennouri, M.; Lafforgue, C.; Schmitz, P.; Ayadi, A. Experimental Study of Membrane Fouling during Crossflow Microfiltration of Yeast and Bacteria Suspensions: Towards an Analysis at the Microscopic Level. Membranes 2013, 3, 44-68.

AMA Style

Hassan IB, Ennouri M, Lafforgue C, Schmitz P, Ayadi A. Experimental Study of Membrane Fouling during Crossflow Microfiltration of Yeast and Bacteria Suspensions: Towards an Analysis at the Microscopic Level. Membranes. 2013; 3(2):44-68.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hassan, Ines B.; Ennouri, Monia; Lafforgue, Christine; Schmitz, Philippe; Ayadi, Abdelmoneim. 2013. "Experimental Study of Membrane Fouling during Crossflow Microfiltration of Yeast and Bacteria Suspensions: Towards an Analysis at the Microscopic Level." Membranes 3, no. 2: 44-68.

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