Membranes 2012, 2(3), 510-528; doi:10.3390/membranes2030510

Electrochemical Membrane Reactors for Sustainable Chlorine Recycling

1 Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Process Systems Engineering, Sandtorstrasse 1, Magdeburg 39106, Germany 2 Chair for Process Systems Engineering, Otto von Guericke University, Universitätsplatz 2, Magdeburg 39106, Germany 3 Institute of Chemical Process Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology, Leibnizstr. 17, Clausthal-Zellerfeld 38678, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 May 2012; in revised form: 29 June 2012 / Accepted: 4 July 2012 / Published: 30 July 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Electrochemical Energy Applications)
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Abstract: Polymer electrolyte membranes have found broad application in a number of processes, being fuel cells, due to energy concerns, the main focus of the scientific community worldwide. Relatively little attention has been paid to the use of these materials in electrochemical production and separation processes. In this review, we put emphasis upon the application of Nafion membranes in electrochemical membrane reactors for chlorine recycling. The performance of such electrochemical reactors can be influenced by a number of factors including the properties of the membrane, which play an important role in reactor optimization. This review discusses the role of Nafion as a membrane, as well as its importance in the catalyst layer for the formation of the so-called three-phase boundary. The influence of an equilibrated medium on the Nafion proton conductivity and Cl crossover, as well as the influence of the catalyst ink dispersion medium on the Nafion/catalyst self-assembly and its importance for the formation of an ionic conducting network in the catalyst layer are summarized.
Keywords: polymer electrolyte membrane; Nafion; HCl electrolysis; fuel cell; hydrochloric acid; hydrogen chloride; chlorine; recycling; catalyst layer; three phase boundary; crossover

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MDPI and ACS Style

Vidakovic-Koch, T.; Gonzalez Martinez, I.; Kuwertz, R.; Kunz, U.; Turek, T.; Sundmacher, K. Electrochemical Membrane Reactors for Sustainable Chlorine Recycling. Membranes 2012, 2, 510-528.

AMA Style

Vidakovic-Koch T, Gonzalez Martinez I, Kuwertz R, Kunz U, Turek T, Sundmacher K. Electrochemical Membrane Reactors for Sustainable Chlorine Recycling. Membranes. 2012; 2(3):510-528.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vidakovic-Koch, Tanja; Gonzalez Martinez, Isai; Kuwertz, Rafael; Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas; Sundmacher, Kai. 2012. "Electrochemical Membrane Reactors for Sustainable Chlorine Recycling." Membranes 2, no. 3: 510-528.

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