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Vaccines 2017, 5(3), 28; doi:10.3390/vaccines5030028

Equine PBMC Cytokines Profile after In Vitro α- and γ-EHV Infection: Efficacy of a Parapoxvirus Ovis Based-Immunomodulator Treatment

1
LABÉO Frank Duncombe, Unité BioTARGen, EA 7450, Normandie Université, 14053 Caen, France
2
Animal Health Trust, Centre for Preventive Medicine, Lanwades Park, Newmarket CB8 7UU, UK
3
Veterinary Medicine Research and Development, Zoetis Belgium, 1930 Zaventem, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexandre Zakhartchouk
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract

Equine herpesviruses (EHV) infect horses early during life and the persistence of these viruses through establishment of latency represents a real risk. A better understanding of the immune response to EHV infection is necessary to improve our methods of prevention and decrease the risk of transmission. The objectives of this study were to characterise the cytokine gene expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after in vitro EHV-1, EHV-4, and EHV-2 infection and to determine the efficacy of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) against these 3 viruses. PBMC were isolated from 3 horses and infected in vitro with EHV-1, EHV-4, or EHV-2 in the presence or absence of iPPVO. In vitro culture of PBMC with EHV-1, EHV-4, and iPPVO induced a significant increase of IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ gene expression. EHV-4 also triggered a significant increase of IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA. EHV-2 triggered a significant increase of IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α mRNA. The presence of iPPVO induced an earlier and stronger expression of IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ mRNA during EHV infection and reduced the inflammatory response induced by EHV-2. In conclusion, this study suggests that the presence of iPPVO potentiates the development of the immune response to in vitro EHV infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Horse; Equid herpesviruses; cytokines; immunomodulator; inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis Horse; Equid herpesviruses; cytokines; immunomodulator; inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hue, E.S.; Richard, E.A.; Fortier, C.I.; Fortier, G.D.; Paillot, R.; Raue, R.; Pronost, S.L. Equine PBMC Cytokines Profile after In Vitro α- and γ-EHV Infection: Efficacy of a Parapoxvirus Ovis Based-Immunomodulator Treatment. Vaccines 2017, 5, 28.

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