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Vaccines 2017, 5(2), 9; doi:10.3390/vaccines5020009

Oncolytic Alphaviruses in Cancer Immunotherapy

PanTherapeutics, CH1095 Lutry, Switzerland
Academic Editor: C.A.H.H. (Toos) Daemen
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 6 April 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
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Abstract

Oncolytic viruses show specific targeting and killing of tumor cells and therefore provide attractive assets for cancer immunotherapy. In parallel to oncolytic viral vectors based on adenoviruses and herpes simplex viruses, oncolytic RNA viruses and particularly alphaviruses have been evaluated as delivery vehicles. Immunization studies in experimental rodent models for various cancers including glioblastoma, hematologic, hepatocellular, colon, cervix, and lung cancer as well as melanoma have been conducted with naturally occurring oncolytic alphavirus strains such as M1 and Sindbis AR339. Moreover, animals were vaccinated with engineered oncolytic replication-deficient and -competent Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vectors expressing various antigens. Vaccinations elicited strong antibody responses and resulted in tumor growth inhibition, tumor regression and even complete tumor eradication. Vaccination also led to prolonged survival in several animal models. Furthermore, preclinical evaluation demonstrated both prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic alphavirus administration. Clinical trials in humans have mainly been limited to safety studies so far. View Full-Text
Keywords: oncolytic alphaviruses; cancer immunotherapy; tumor eradication oncolytic alphaviruses; cancer immunotherapy; tumor eradication
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Lundstrom, K. Oncolytic Alphaviruses in Cancer Immunotherapy. Vaccines 2017, 5, 9.

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