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Vaccines 2015, 3(3), 579-596; doi:10.3390/vaccines3030579

Cholera Toxin Subunit B as Adjuvant––An Accelerator in Protective Immunity and a Break in Autoimmunity

Department of Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, 3rd floor, Barcelona 08028, Spain
Academic Editor: Vasso Apostolopoulos
Received: 4 May 2015 / Revised: 7 July 2015 / Accepted: 20 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine Delivery)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [129 KB, uploaded 24 July 2015]

Abstract

Cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) is the nontoxic portion of cholera toxin. Its affinity to the monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) that is broadly distributed in a variety of cell types including epithelial cells of the gut and antigen presenting cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells, allows its optimal access to the immune system. CTB can easily be expressed on its own in a variety of organisms, and several approaches can be used to couple it to antigens, either by genetic fusion or by chemical manipulation, leading to strongly enhanced immune responses to the antigens. In autoimmune diseases, CTB has the capacity to evoke regulatory responses and to thereby dampen autoimmune responses, in several but not all animal models. It remains to be seen whether the latter approach translates to success in the clinic, however, the versatility of CTB to manipulate immune responses in either direction makes this protein a promising adjuvant for vaccine development. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cholera toxin subunit B (CTB); adjuvant; expression; oral tolerance; immunity; autoimmunity Cholera toxin subunit B (CTB); adjuvant; expression; oral tolerance; immunity; autoimmunity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Stratmann, T. Cholera Toxin Subunit B as Adjuvant––An Accelerator in Protective Immunity and a Break in Autoimmunity. Vaccines 2015, 3, 579-596.

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