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Vaccines, Volume 1, Issue 1 (March 2013), Pages 1-76

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Factors Affecting the Acceptance of Pandemic Influenza A H1N1 Vaccine amongst Essential Service Providers: A Cross Sectional Study
Vaccines 2013, 1(1), 17-33; doi:10.3390/vaccines1010017
Received: 17 October 2012 / Revised: 3 December 2012 / Accepted: 13 December 2012 / Published: 20 December 2012
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Abstract
Although mentioned in the UK pandemic plan, essential service providers were not among the priority groups. They may be important targets of future influenza pandemic vaccination campaigns. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 380 employees from West Midlands police headquarters and [...] Read more.
Although mentioned in the UK pandemic plan, essential service providers were not among the priority groups. They may be important targets of future influenza pandemic vaccination campaigns. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 380 employees from West Midlands police headquarters and 15 operational command units in the West Midlands Area during December 2009–February 2010 to identify factors affecting intention to accept the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine. One hundred and ninety nine (52.4%) employees completed the questionnaire. 39.7% were willing to accept the vaccine. The most common reasons for intention to accept were worry about catching Swine Flu (n = 42, 53.2%) and about infecting others (n = 40, 50.6%). The most common reason for declination was worry about side effects (n = 45, 57.0%). The most important factor predicting vaccine uptake was previous receipt of seasonal vaccine (OR 7.9 (95% CI 3.4, 18.5)). Employees aged <40 years, males, current smokers, and those who perceived a greater threat and severity of swine flu were also more likely to agree to the vaccine. The findings of this study could be used to improve future pandemic immunization strategies. Targeted education programs should be used to address misconceptions; the single most important factor which might lead to a large improvement in uptake is to allay concern about side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Open AccessArticle A Modified Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccine with Reduced Activity of Antioxidants and Glutamine Synthetase Exhibits Enhanced Protection of Mice despite Diminished in Vivo Persistence
Vaccines 2013, 1(1), 34-57; doi:10.3390/vaccines1010034
Received: 26 October 2012 / Revised: 18 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 January 2013 / Published: 11 January 2013
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Abstract
Early attempts to improve BCG have focused on increasing the expression of prominent antigens and adding recombinant toxins or cytokines to influence antigen presentation. One such modified BCG vaccine candidate has been withdrawn from human clinical trials due to adverse effects. BCG [...] Read more.
Early attempts to improve BCG have focused on increasing the expression of prominent antigens and adding recombinant toxins or cytokines to influence antigen presentation. One such modified BCG vaccine candidate has been withdrawn from human clinical trials due to adverse effects. BCG was derived from virulent Mycobacterium bovis and retains much of its capacity for suppressing host immune responses. Accordingly, we have used a different strategy for improving BCG based on reducing its immune suppressive capacity. We made four modifications to BCG Tice to produce 4dBCG and compared it to the parent vaccine in C57Bl/6 mice. The modifications included elimination of the oxidative stress sigma factor SigH, elimination of the SecA2 secretion channel, and reductions in the activity of iron co-factored superoxide dismutase and glutamine synthetase. After IV inoculation of 4dBCG, 95% of vaccine bacilli were eradicated from the spleens of mice within 60 days whereas the titer of BCG Tice was not significantly reduced. Subcutaneous vaccination with 4dBCG produced greater protection than vaccination with BCG against dissemination of an aerosolized challenge of M. tuberculosis to the spleen at 8 weeks post-challenge. At this time, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice also exhibited altered lung histopathology compared to BCG-vaccinated mice and control mice with less well-developed lymphohistiocytic nodules in the lung parenchyma. At 26 weeks post-challenge, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice but not BCG-vaccinated mice had significantly fewer challenge bacilli in the lungs than control mice. In conclusion, despite reduced persistence in mice a modified BCG vaccine with diminished antioxidants and glutamine synthetase is superior to the parent vaccine in conferring protection against M. tuberculosis. The targeting of multiple immune suppressive factors produced by BCG is a promising strategy for simultaneously improving vaccine safety and effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis Vaccines)

Review

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Open AccessReview Peptide Vaccine Therapy in Colorectal Cancer
Vaccines 2013, 1(1), 1-16; doi:10.3390/vaccines1010001
Received: 6 July 2012 / Revised: 15 August 2012 / Accepted: 16 August 2012 / Published: 24 August 2012
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Abstract
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths and the second most prevalent (after breast cancer) in the western world. High metastatic relapse rates and severe side effects associated with the adjuvant treatment have urged oncologists and clinicians to [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths and the second most prevalent (after breast cancer) in the western world. High metastatic relapse rates and severe side effects associated with the adjuvant treatment have urged oncologists and clinicians to find a novel, less toxic therapeutic strategy. Considering the limited success of the past clinical trials involving peptide vaccine therapy to treat colorectal cancer, it is necessary to revise our knowledge of the immune system and its potential use in tackling cancer. This review presents the efforts of the scientific community in the development of peptide vaccine therapy for colorectal cancer. We review recent clinical trials and the strategies for immunologic monitoring of responses to peptide vaccine therapy. We also discuss the mechanisms underlying the therapy and potential molecular targets in colon cancer. Full article

Other

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Open AccessConcept Paper Perspectives for Developing New Tuberculosis Vaccines Derived from the Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis: I. Basic Principles, II. Preclinical Testing, and III. Clinical Testing
Vaccines 2013, 1(1), 58-76; doi:10.3390/vaccines1010058
Received: 13 December 2012 / Revised: 13 December 2012 / Accepted: 15 January 2013 / Published: 25 January 2013
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Abstract
Part I. Basic Principles. TB vaccines cannot prevent establishment of the infection. They can only prevent an early pulmonary tubercle from developing into clinical disease. A more effective new vaccine should optimize both cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) better than [...] Read more.
Part I. Basic Principles. TB vaccines cannot prevent establishment of the infection. They can only prevent an early pulmonary tubercle from developing into clinical disease. A more effective new vaccine should optimize both cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) better than any existing vaccine. The rabbit is the only laboratory animal in which all aspects of the human disease can be reproduced: namely, the prevention of most primary tubercles, the arrestment of most primary tubercles, the formation of the tubercle’s solid caseous center, the liquefaction of this center, the formation of cavities and the bronchial spread of the disease. In liquefied caseum, virulent tubercle bacilli can multiply extracellularly, especially in the liquefied caseum next to the inner wall of a cavity where oxygen is plentiful. The bacilli in liquefied caseum cannot be reached by the increased number of activated macrophages produced by TB vaccines. Therefore, new TB vaccines will have little or no effect on the extracellular bacillary growth within liquefied caseum. TB vaccines can only increase the host’s ability to stop the development of new TB lesions that arise from the bronchial spread of tubercle bacilli from the cavity to other parts of the lung. Therefore, effective TB vaccines do not prevent the reactivation of latent TB. Such vaccines only control (or reduce) the number of metastatic lesions that result after the primary TB lesion was reactivated by the liquefaction process. (Note: the large number of tubercle bacilli growing extracellularly in liquefied caseum gives rise to mutations that enable antimicrobial resistance—which is a major reason why TB still exists today). Part II. Preclinical Testing. The counting of grossly visible tubercles in the lungs of rabbits after the inhalation of virulent human-type tubercle bacilli is the most pertinent preclinical method to assess the efficacy of new TB vaccines (because an effective vaccine will stop the growth of developing tubercles before while they are still microscopic in size). Unfortunately, rabbits are rarely used in preclinical vaccine trials, despite their relative ease of handling and human-like response to this infection. Mice do not generate an effective DTH response, and guinea pigs do not generate an effective CMI response. Only the rabbits and most humans can establish the proper amount of DTH and CMI that is necessary to contain this infection. Therefore, rabbits should be included in all pre-clinical testing of new TB vaccines. New drugs (and/or immunological procedures) to reduce liquefaction and cavity formation are urgently needed. A simple intradermal way to select such drugs or procedures is described herein. Part III. Clinical Testing. Vaccine trials would be much more precise if the variations in human populations (listed herein) were taken into consideration. BCG and successful new TB vaccines should always increase host resistance to TB in naive subjects. This is a basic immunological principle. The efficacies of new and old TB vaccines are often not recognized, because these variations were not identified in the populations evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis Vaccines)

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