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Antioxidants 2018, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7010005

Singlet Oxygen and Free Radical Reactions of Retinoids and Carotenoids—A Review

1
Dalton Cumbrian Facility, The University of Manchester, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3HA, UK
2
School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Lennard-Jones Building, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 1 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids—Antioxidant Properties)
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Abstract

We report on studies of reactions of singlet oxygen with carotenoids and retinoids and a range of free radical studies on carotenoids and retinoids with emphasis on recent work, dietary carotenoids and the role of oxygen in biological processes. Many previous reviews are cited and updated together with new data not previously reviewed. The review does not deal with computational studies but the emphasis is on laboratory-based results. We contrast the ease of study of both singlet oxygen and polyene radical cations compared to neutral radicals. Of particular interest is the switch from anti- to pro-oxidant behavior of a carotenoid with change of oxygen concentration: results for lycopene in a cellular model system show total protection of the human cells studied at zero oxygen concentration, but zero protection at 100% oxygen concentration. View Full-Text
Keywords: carotenoids; xanthophylls; retinoids; lycopene; pro-/anti-oxidants; singlet oxygen; neutral free radicals; radical cations/anions; hydroxyl radical; hydrogen abstraction carotenoids; xanthophylls; retinoids; lycopene; pro-/anti-oxidants; singlet oxygen; neutral free radicals; radical cations/anions; hydroxyl radical; hydrogen abstraction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Edge, R.; Truscott, T.G. Singlet Oxygen and Free Radical Reactions of Retinoids and Carotenoids—A Review. Antioxidants 2018, 7, 5.

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