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Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 78; doi:10.3390/antiox6040078

Total Phenolic and Yellow Pigment Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Durum Wheat Milling Fractions

1
Grain Research Laboratory, Canadian Grain Commission, 1404-303 Main Street, Winnipeg, MB R3C 3G8, Canada
2
Crop Development Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 14 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids—Antioxidant Properties)
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of total yellow pigments, total phenolic compounds, and their antioxidant activities in various durum wheat milling fractions. Carotenoid composition of yellow pigment extract was also examined using UPLC. The ABTS radical scavenging activity of the milling fractions decreased in the order of short bran/bran > feed flour > flour/semolina in both total phenolic and total yellow pigment extracts. Yellow pigments extracts from bran, short bran, and feed flour exhibited 5.6–15.4% higher antioxidant activity than those of total phenolic extracts from the corresponding milling fractions. The UPLC results showed a non-carotenoid peak at Rt 0.47 min which was present in fractions of the grain outer layers but absent in semolina and flour. This peak absorbed in the UV range of 271 to 327 nm. These observations suggest that the unknown peak could be composed of phenolic compounds co-extracted in their free form with carotenoids in the polar water-saturated butanol solvent. The compounds in this peak could result in overestimation of carotenoid content and antioxidant activity in bran, short bran and feed flour as the peak contributed to 18.3–26.0% of total carotenoids if it was taken into account. View Full-Text
Keywords: durum wheat; milling fractions; carotenoid and phenolic content; antioxidant activity durum wheat; milling fractions; carotenoid and phenolic content; antioxidant activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fu, B.X.; Chiremba, C.; Pozniak, C.J.; Wang, K.; Nam, S. Total Phenolic and Yellow Pigment Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Durum Wheat Milling Fractions. Antioxidants 2017, 6, 78.

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